木霉菌对向日葵幼苗生理特性及菌核病防治效果的影响
Effects of Trichoderma on physiological characteristics of sunflower seedlings and control effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
投稿时间:2022-01-05  修订日期:2022-09-16
DOI:
中文关键词:  木霉  向日葵  菌核病  生理特性  防治效果
英文关键词:Trichoderma  sunflower  Sclerotinia sclerotiorun  physiological characteristics  control efficacy
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFD0201202)
作者单位邮编
廉 华 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院,黑龙江 大庆 163309
陈玉蓉 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院,黑龙江 大庆 
李 梅 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所 
李润哲 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院,黑龙江 大庆 
张 渟 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院,黑龙江 大庆 
马光恕 黑龙江八一农垦大学园艺园林学院,黑龙江 大庆 163319
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中文摘要:
      试验于2021年5~8月,采用筛选出的对向日葵菌核病菌有较好拮抗作用的非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838和棘孢木霉T.asperellum 573,通过盆栽试验,测定不同菌株施用方式对向日葵幼苗生长、生理特性以及对向日葵菌核病防效的影响。结果表明:非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838和棘孢木霉T.asperellum 573不同施用方式均能提高两者对向日葵菌核病的防效,其中非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838的T1处理(播种前5 d用100 mL·盆-1木霉菌悬浮液拌土+接种菌核病菌前2 d用100 mL·盆-1木霉菌悬浮液灌根)应用效果最好,对向日葵菌核病的防效达到98.58%。与CK1(只利用向日葵菌核病菌灌根且不施用木霉悬浮液)相比,非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838和棘孢木霉T.asperellum 573不同施用方式均能提高向日葵幼苗株高、茎粗、全株鲜重和根冠比,其中非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838的T1处理对向日葵幼苗形态建成和物质积累的促进效果最好,株高、茎粗、全株鲜重、根冠比分别比CK1提高58.82%、177.42%、595.17%、41.67%。非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838和棘孢木霉T.asperellum 573不同施用方式均能提高向日葵幼苗叶片中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、脯氨酸和叶绿素含量,降低了叶片中的MDA含量、细胞膜相对透性;其中非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838的T1处理对向日葵幼苗生理特性促进效果最好,在播种后35 d,该处理向日葵幼苗叶片中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、脯氨酸和叶绿素含量分别比CK1提高了179.91%、132.10%、98.68%、129.27%,MDA含量、细胞膜相对透性则分别比CK1下降了49.44%、53.22%。研究表明非洲哈茨木霉T.afroharzianum 838和棘孢木霉T.asperellum 573通过提高向日葵幼苗生理特性,促进了幼苗形态建成和物质积累,提高了对向日葵菌核病的防治效果。
英文摘要:
      T.Afroharzianum 838 and T.asperellum 573 with good control effect against sunflower Sclerotinia sclerotiorun were screened, the effect of different strains application methods on the seedling growth, physiological characteristics and control effects against Sclerotinia sclerotiorun of sunflower through pot culture were evaluated from May to August 2021. The results showed that application methods of T.afroharzianum 838 and T.asperellum 573 effectively improved the control effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower, and T1 of T.afroharzianum 838(mixing soil with 100 ml· pot-1 Trichoderma suspension 5 days before sowing+root irrigation with 100 ml· pot-1 Trichoderma suspension 2 days before inoculation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)is the most effective, with disease control efficacy of 98.58%. Different application methods of T.afroharzianum 838 and T.asperellum 573 all improved the plant height, stem diameter, whole plant fresh weight and root shoot ratio of sunflower seedlings compared with CK1 (only using sunflower Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to irrigate roots without Trichoderma suspension), and T1 treatment of T.afroharzianum 838 had the best promoting effect on the morphogenesis and material accumulation of sunflower seedlings. Compared with CK1, plant height, stem diameter, whole plant fresh weight and root shoot ratio of sunflower seedlings increased by 58.82%, 177.42%, 595.17% and 41.67% respectively. Different application methods of T.afroharzianum 838 and T.asperellum 573 all increased the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and chlorophyll in the leaves of sunflower seedlings, and reduced the content of MDA and cell membrane relative permeability in the leaves, and T1 treatment of T.afroharzianum 838 had the best effect on promoting the physiological characteristics of sunflower seedlings. Compared with CK1, the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline and chlorophyll in the leaves of sunflower seedlings increased by 179.91%, 132.10%, 98.68% and 129.27% respectively, while the content of MDA and cell membrane relative permeability decreased by 49.44% and 53.22% respectively at 35 days after sowing. The results showed that T.afroharzianum 838 and T.asperellum 573 in this study could increased the physiological characteristics, promoted the morphogenesis and material accumulation of sunflower seedlings and improved the control effect of sunflower Sclerotinia sclerotiorun.
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