半干旱区地表覆盖方式的农田土壤水温效应及其对玉米产量的影响
Effects of surface mulching on farmland soil water temperature and maize yield in semi-arid area
投稿时间:2022-03-10  修订日期:2022-09-21
DOI:
中文关键词:  半干旱区  地表覆盖  土壤水分和温度  玉米  产量  水分利用效率
英文关键词:Semi-arid area  Surface mulching  Soil moisture and temperature  Maize  Yield  Water use efficiency
基金项目:吉林省农业科技创新工程项目-创新团队(CXGC2021TD003);国家现代农业产业技术体系洮南综合试验站(CARS-02-50);国家重点研发计划项目( 2017YFD0300605 )
作者单位邮编
张丽华 吉林省农业科学院 130033
徐晨 吉林省农业科学院 
闫伟平 吉林省农业科学院 
孙宁 吉林省农业科学院 
谭国波 吉林省农业科学院 
于江 吉林省农业科学院 
赵洪祥 吉林省农业科学院 
李斐 吉林省农业科学院 
孟祥盟 吉林省农业科学院 
边少锋 吉林省农业科学院 130033
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中文摘要:
      为探索吉林省半干旱区水分高效、玉米增产的栽培技术模式,采用不同覆盖材料进行为期4年的大田试验,设置无覆盖(CK)、普通地膜覆盖(CM)、降解地膜覆盖(DM)和秸秆覆盖(SM) 4个处理,研究不同覆盖方式对土壤水分、土壤温度、玉米生长发育及产量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:玉米生育期内土壤贮水量时空变化与当年的降雨时空分配有关,垂直空间上20-60 cm土层土壤贮水量显著高于0-20 cm,处理间土壤贮水量SM>CM>DM>CK;耕层0-20 cm土壤温度随玉米生育时期推进呈先升后降的变化趋势,随土层深度的增加逐渐降低,降低幅度呈CM>SM>DM>CK的变化趋势。地表覆盖具有调节土壤温度的作用,与CK相比,CM和DM使5、6月土壤温度分别提升2.12、1.71℃和2.07、1.52℃,SM下降了1.72、1.01℃;与5、6月气温相比,地膜覆盖每日土壤温度较气温提升2.2~3.2℃,秸秆覆盖降低0.3~0.6℃,8、9月覆盖土壤温度下降幅度低于气温;与无覆盖(CK)相比,CM和DM处理4年平均增产8.59%和14.10%,SM减产8.96%,水分利用效率CM和DM提高10.3%和15.6%,秸秆覆盖降低8.4%;玉米产量与5、6、8、9月,土层5、10、15、20 cm土壤温度极显著正相关,与土层0-20 cm、R1期土壤贮水量极显著负相关。降解地膜覆盖具有保墒、升温、增产、水分利用高效且环保等多重作用,本结果可为半干旱区水分高效、玉米增产的栽培技术模式提供理论和技术支撑。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the cultivation technology mode of water efficiency and maize yield increase in semi-arid area of Jilin Province, a four-year experiment was carried out with different mulching materials. Four treatments were set up:no mulching (CK), common plastic film mulching (CM), degradable plastic film mulching (DM) and straw mulching (SM). The effects of different mulching treatments on soil moisture, soil temperature, maize growth and development, yield and water use efficiency were studied. The results showed that the temporal and spatial variation of soil water storage during maize growth period was related to the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall in that year. The soil water storage in 20-60 cm vertical space was significantly higher than that in 0-20 cm, and the soil water storage of different treatments was SM>CM>DM>CK. The soil temperature of 0-20 cm in the cultivated layer increased first and then decreased with the growth period of maize, and gradually decreased with the increase of soil depth, and the decreasing range was CM>SM>DM>CK. Compared with CK, CM and DM increased the ground temperature by 2.12℃, 1.71℃ and 2.07℃, 1.52℃ respectively in May and June, while SM decreased by 1.72℃, 1.01℃. Compared with the temperature in May and June, the daily ground temperature of plastic film mulching increased by 2.2~3.2℃, and that of straw mulching decreased by 0.3~0.6℃. The decline range of ground temperature of mulching in August and September was lower than that of air temperature. The average yield of CM and DM increased by 8.59% and 14.10%, that of SM decreased by 8.96%, the water use efficiency of CM and DM increased by 10.3% and 15.6%, and the straw mulching decreased by 8.4%. Maize yield was significantly positively correlated with soil temperature in May, June, August and September, soil layer 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm, and negatively correlated with soil water storage in soil layer 0-20 cm and R1. Degradable plastic film mulching has multiple functions such as moisture conservation, temperature rise, yield increase, water efficiency and environmental protection. The results can provide theoretical and technical support for the cultivation technology model of water efficiency and corn yield increase in semi-arid area.
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