李健伟,吴鹏昊,肖绍伟,崔建平,张巨松.机采种植模式对不同株型棉花脱叶及纤维品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):82~88
机采种植模式对不同株型棉花脱叶及纤维品质的影响
Effects of cotton planting modes with machine picking on defoliation and fiber quality of different plant types
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.11
中文关键词:  棉花  机采种植模式  脱叶率  纤维品质  株行距配置
英文关键词:cotton  machine picking cotton planting modes  defoliation  fiber quality  spacing pattern
基金项目:自治区重点研发任务试点项目(2016B01001-2);棉花高产高效关键技术研究与示范(2014BAD11B02);机采品种关键配套技术集成(2017YFD0101605)
作者单位
李健伟 Cotton Engineering ResearchCenter, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052 
吴鹏昊 Cotton Engineering ResearchCenter, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052 
肖绍伟 Cotton Engineering ResearchCenter, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052 
崔建平 Economic Crop Research Institute of Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830091 
张巨松 Cotton Engineering ResearchCenter, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052 
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中文摘要:
      以新陆中54号(株型较松散)和新陆中75号(株型较紧凑)为试验材料,代表南疆早中熟品种类型,以一膜六行、一膜四行、一膜三行模式代表目前机采种植模式, 研究了机采种植模式对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响和不同株型果枝交错程度与脱叶效果的相关关系。结果表明:相同密度下,新陆中54号一膜三行较一膜六行模式籽棉产量增加10.0%,皮棉产量增加8.9%,但新陆中75号一膜三行较一膜六行模式籽棉和皮棉产量分别下降5.8%和8.2%,而一膜四行模式产量下降幅度较小;一膜三行脱叶率、挂枝率均高于一膜四行和一膜六行模式;果枝交错系数α1与脱叶率呈现极显著的负相关关系,相关系数r=-0.685,果枝交错系数α2与挂枝率呈现极显著的正相关关系,相关系数r=0.824,吐絮期LAI与脱叶率和挂枝率相关性不明显;相同品种三种机采种植模式之间纤维品质差异不明显。新陆中54号在一膜三行模式下增产显著,脱叶效果好;新陆中75号一膜六行、四行模式产量较高,但综合考虑脱叶效果和纤维品质,一膜四行模式更适宜机采。因此,对于南疆株型松散型品种推荐采用一膜三行模式,株型紧凑型品种推荐采用一膜四行模式。
英文摘要:
      This study used two types of cottons (loose type Xinluzhong No. 54 and compact type Xinluzhong No. 75) as the test crops and three machine modes in the current field conditions to compare the effects of the planting modes on yield and fiber quality and the relation between structure and defoliation. The results showed that compared with six-lines pattern, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzhong No. 54 with three-lines pattern increased by 7.2% and its lint yield increased by 8.9%. The seed and lint cotton yield of Xinluzhong No. 75 with three-lines pattern decreased by 8.2% while its yield with four-lines patterns decreased slightly. Compared with four-lines pattern and six-lines pattern, the defoliation rate and hanging rate of three-lines pattern were higher. There was a very high negative correlation, r=-0.685, between branch complexity coefficient, α1, and defoliation rate. There was a significant positive correlation, r=0.824, between branch complexity coefficient, α2, and hanging rate. There was no significant correlation between defoliation rate and hanging rate. LAI had no correlation with defoliation rate and hanging rate. There were no obvious differences in fiber quality between three modes. The yield of three-line pattern was the best for Xinluzhong No. 54. Although the yield of six-line and four-line were better, considering effects of defoliation and fiber quality, four-line mode was the best pattern for Xinluzhong No. 75. Therefore, for loose plant type, three-line machine picking planting mode was the best option. But, for compact plant type cultivar, the best machine picking planting node was four-line mode.
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