孙文泰,董铁,刘兴禄,尹晓宁,牛军强,马明.陇东旱塬地表覆盖方式对苹果生育后期叶片质量及根际土壤微环境的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):95~101
陇东旱塬地表覆盖方式对苹果生育后期叶片质量及根际土壤微环境的影响
Effects of ground mulching on leaf quality in late apple growth stage and rhizosphere environment in the dryland of eastern Gansu Province
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.13
中文关键词:  苹果园  地表覆盖方式;苹果;叶片质量;根际生态环境;土壤酶;土壤微生物
英文关键词:apple orchard  ground mulching  apple leaf quality  rhizosphere environment  soil enzyme  soil microorganism
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201135);国家自然科学基金(31760555,3176110476,31560540);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303104);甘肃省苹果产业科技攻关项目(GPCK 2011-1);国家苹果产业技术体系平凉综合试验站项目(GARS-27);甘肃省农科院院地合作项目(2017GAAS57);农业部西北地区果树科学观测试验站项目(S-10-18)
作者单位
孙文泰 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
董铁 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
刘兴禄 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
尹晓宁 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
牛军强 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
马明 Institute of Forestry, Fruits and Floriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探明陇东旱塬区不同覆盖方式对苹果生育后期叶片质量、根际生态环境的影响,以16 a生,连续6 a覆盖的盛果期“长富2号”苹果树为试材,设清耕(CK)、覆膜、麦草覆盖、覆黑膜+麦草(膜+草)等4个处理,调查叶片养分、活性氧代谢功能,测定0~100 cm内不同深度土层土壤水分、容重、有机质等,对根际土壤微生物数量及土壤酶活性进行分析。结果表明:麦草覆盖处理可有效提高苹果叶片叶绿素与淀粉含量,增幅分别为CK的2.79%、29.09%;根系集中分布层(20~40 cm)土壤水分、有机质含量增高,分别为CK的102.93%,135.96%;土壤容重仅为CK的96.32%,并有效提高各土层土壤酶活性,特别提高土壤表层(0~20 cm)酶活性,脲酶、碱性磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶活性为CK的157.14%、218.5%、118.02%、193.21%,可有效提高土壤中微生物总量,为CK的134.19%,其中细菌与真菌的数量增高,放线菌的数量降低;根系活力与土壤水分、孔隙度、微生物含量及脲酶、蔗糖酶等呈极显著正相关,与土壤容重、过氧化氢酶呈极显著负相关。覆膜与膜+草处理对叶片及土壤环境改善效果较差。综合分析根际土壤理化性状及土壤酶、微生物空间分布特征等,认为麦草覆盖处理是陇东旱塬区苹果园适宜的地表覆盖方式。
英文摘要:
      The objective of this study is to identify the effects of ground mulching on the leaf quality at late growth stages of apple as well as rhizosphere environment in Longdong arid areas. Leaf nutrients and reactive oxygen metabolism of the 16-years-old apple trees with six consecutive years coverage were measured, which included conventional tillage (CK) with three coverage types of plastic mulching, straw mulching, and film + straw. Soil moisture, soil bulk density, and organic matter content in different layers were determined as well as the soil microorganisms and soil enzyme activity in the rhizosphere. The results indicated that straw mulching increased leaf chlorophyll and starch contents by 2.79% and 29.09%, respectively. In the concentrated layer of apple roots (20~40 cm), straw mulching increased content of soil moisture by 102.93% and organic matter content by 135.96% over the control. Also, the soil bulk density was reduced by 96.32%. The activities of urease, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, and sucrase in top 20 cm soil layer were significantly increased by 157.14%, 218.5%, 118.02%, and 193.21% over that of the control, respectively. The amount of microorganisms in the soil with straw mulching was 134.19% of that in the control and the population of bacteria and fungi were increased, but the population of actinomycetes was reduced in other soil layers. Also, soil moisture, porosity, microbial population, and activity of urease and sucrase were positively associated with root activity. In addition, there were negative correlations between soil bulk density, catalase, and root activity. The treatments of plastic mulching and film + straw did not improve the leaf quality and soil rhizosphere environment as much as straw mulching. The results of soil physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme, and microbial community distribution showed that the straw mulching is a better option for improving most of the parameters in apple orchard in dryland of the eastern Gansu.
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