李光,白文斌,高志强,任爱霞.旱地休闲期间翻耕及覆盖对小麦氮素吸收、运转的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):102~107
旱地休闲期间翻耕及覆盖对小麦氮素吸收、运转的影响
Effect of deep tillage and mulching on wheat nitrogen uptake and translocation during fallow period in dryland
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.14
中文关键词:  旱地小麦  休闲期  深翻  覆盖  氮素  吸收  运转
英文关键词:dry-land wheat  fallow period  deep tillage  mulching  nitrogen  uptake  translocation
基金项目:山西省主要农作物种质创新与分子育种重点科技创新平台(201605D151002);山西省晋中市科技成果转化与应用计划(T171004)
作者单位
李光 Sorghum Research Institute of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinzhong, Shanxi 030600, China
Sorghum Genetic and Germplasm Innovation in Shanxi Province, Jinzhong, Shanxi 030600, China 
白文斌 Sorghum Research Institute of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinzhong, Shanxi 030600, China
Sorghum Genetic and Germplasm Innovation in Shanxi Province, Jinzhong, Shanxi 030600, China 
高志强 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agriculture University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
任爱霞 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agriculture University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
摘要点击次数: 110
全文下载次数: 94
中文摘要:
      立足旱地小麦休闲期降水和生育期用水错位问题,连续两年(2009—2011年)在山西闻喜旱地小麦试验基地进行休闲期耕作和覆盖试验,研究不同时间深翻和不同覆盖方式的蓄保水分效果及水分与小麦植株氮素吸收运转的关系。结果表明:休闲期深翻(即麦收后45 d或15 d深翻),渗水地膜覆盖和液态地膜覆盖较不覆盖可提高播前0~300 cm土壤蓄水量,可提高旱地小麦各生育阶段,尤其前中期氮素积累量,且麦收后45 d深翻后渗水地膜覆盖效果较好;休闲期深翻,渗水地膜和液态地膜覆盖较不覆盖可提高开花期各器官氮素积累量,尤其是麦收后45 d深翻后渗水地膜覆盖处理。渗水地膜条件下,麦收后45 d较15 d深翻可提高开花期叶片和茎秆氮素积累量,可显著提高颖壳+穗轴氮素积累量,可显著提高开花期各器官氮素对籽粒的贡献率,尤其是叶片和茎秆,从而显著提高籽粒氮积累量、成熟期氮素积累量和籽粒产量,且除开花期各器官氮素对籽粒贡献率外,渗水地膜覆盖较液态地膜覆盖效果好,籽粒氮素积累量达17%,籽粒产量达13%。两年相关分析表明,休闲期深翻渗水地膜覆盖或液态地膜覆盖,降水较少年份的旱地小麦播前3 m土壤水分与花前氮素运转关系密切,而降水较多年份与花前氮素运转关系及花后氮素积累关系均较为密切,且与花后氮素更密切。研究表明,休闲期深翻(即麦收后45 d深翻)后采用渗水地膜覆盖,有利于旱地麦田蓄积休闲期降水,提高播前3 m各土层底墒;有利于小麦各生育阶段氮素吸收积累,尤其前中期;有利于花前氮素向籽粒中运转,尤其叶片和茎秆;有利于籽粒中氮素积累和籽粒产量的提高。
英文摘要:
      Due to the imbalance of precipitation during fallow period and high demanding of water during wheat growth period in dryland, we investigated the effect of soil water storage and the relationship between water and nitrogen uptake and translocation in wheat crop for two consecutive years (2009-2011) at Wenxi Dryland Wheat Experimental Station of Shanxi. The study was conducted in the way that deep tillage and different mulching were carried out at various times during the fallow period. The results showed that after deep tillage in fallow period (45 days or 15 days after wheat harvest), permeable plastic mulching (WPM) and liquid mulching (LF) improved the soil water storage in 0~300 cm soil layer before seeding compared to the no mulching (NF) treatment and promoted the accumulated N in various growing stages of wheat in dryland, especially in the earlier stages and deep tillage after 45 days of wheat harvest. After deep tillage in fallow period, WPM and LF improved N accumulation in every organ at all stages, and 45 day deep tillage was more significant than other one. Under WPM, the amounts of accumulated N in leaf and stem at flowering stage was improved esp. in glume and cob. The 45 day deep tillage significantly improved the N contribution rate of each organ to grain in the flowering period, especially that of leaf and stem. Therefore, the accumulation of N in seed, N accumulation, and grain yield in mature stage were significantly improved. Additionally, the permeable film mulching was better than liquid mulching with increases of 17% N accumulation in grain and 13% grain yield. The correlation analysis showed that the soil moisture of 3 meters before seeding closely related to N translocation before flowering in years of less precipitation in dryland with all treatments. However, in the years of more precipitation, it was not only closely related to the translocation of N before flowering, but also close relationship with the N accumulation after flowering, esp. after flowering. When there was more precipitation, the stored water with deep tillage and mulching during fallow period extended to the later stage of fertility. In short, under this experiment condition, 45 day deep tillage and liquid mulching in fallow period were conducive to the fallow period precipitation of dryland wheat and enhanced soil moisture storage of every soil layer above 3 m before seeding. As a result, it was beneficial to N uptake and accumulation of wheat at every growth stage, especially in the earlier stages that improved the N translocation before flowering from other organs to grain, particularly from leaves and stem to grain. Thus, it benefited grain N accumulation and grain yield improvement.
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