王泳斌,武均,吕锦慧,蔡立群,张军,张仁陟.不同氮素水平下有机物料添加对陇中黄土高原旱作农田N2O排放特征的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):108~115
不同氮素水平下有机物料添加对陇中黄土高原旱作农田N2O排放特征的影响
Effect of organic materials on N2O emission under different N-fertilizer levels in dryland of the Loess Plateau of central Gansu Province
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.15
中文关键词:  旱作农田  N2O排放  生物质炭  秸秆还田  氮素水平
英文关键词:dry farmland  N2O emission  biochar  straw returning  N fertilizer level
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31571594,41661049);“十二·五”循环农业科技工程项目(2012BAD14B03);甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室省部共建国家重点实验室培育基地开放基金(GSCS-2012-13);甘肃省自然科学基金(1606RJZA076)
作者单位
王泳斌 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
武均 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
吕锦慧 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
蔡立群 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water-saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张军 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water-saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张仁陟 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Engineering Research Center for Agriculture Water-saving, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究不同用量氮肥配施生物质炭或小麦秸秆对旱作农田N2O排放通量的影响,在陇中黄土高原半干旱区连续进行4年不同氮素水平配施不同有机物料的田间定位试验,试验以3种施氮用量(不施氮肥、50 kg(N)·hm-2氮肥、100 kg(N)·hm-2氮肥)配施2种有机物料(小麦秸秆S、生物质炭B)及无有机物料 (C)共组成9个处理,于2016年11月—2017年10月,采用静态箱-气相色谱法,对N2O通量进行全年内连续观测。研究结果表明:观测期内,各处理N2O年平均通量大小排序SN100>CN100>SN50>CN50>BN100>SNO>BN50>CN0>BN0,各处理N2O排放通量变化趋势一致;相较N0处理(CN0、SN0、BN0)的年平均排放通量,N50(CN50、SN50、BN50)和N100(CN100、SN100、BN100)处理分别增加了6.92%和10.03%。相较CN0、CN50和CN100,与其相同氮素水平配施生物质炭后,N2O年平均排放通量分别降低了0.49%、3.15%和4.67%;配施秸秆后,N2O年平均排放通量分别增加了6.37%、3.44%和2.73%。单施氮肥或小麦秸秆配施氮肥均增加了N2O排放的增温潜势,生物质炭配施氮肥减少了N2O排放的增温潜势。主效应分析表明,氮素、秸秆均对提升N2O排放通量发挥显著效应,而生物质炭具有降低效应。相关分析表明,土壤温度与N2O通量表现为显著正相关关系,土壤含水量与N2O通量表现为显著负相关关系(P<5%)。通径分析表明,土壤温度对N2O通量的增大作用远大于土壤含水量对N2O通量的减小作用。秸秆或生物质炭与氮素无交互效应,N2O排放通量随氮素水平的增加而增大,秸秆还田促进了N2O排放而生物质炭抑制了N2O排放。因此,添加生物质炭对旱作农田固氮减排具有较大的潜力。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the effect of application of biochar and straw on N2O emission under different N-fertilizer levels in dryland of the Loess Plateau in central Gansu Province, a field trail with different organic materials combining with different N-fertilizer levels was studied for 4 years. Experiment included the following treatments: the straw combined with three N fertilizer rates (0, 50, and 100 kg·hm-2), coded as SN0, SN50, and SN100, respectively; The biochar applied alone or combined with N fertilizer (50 and 100 kg·hm-2), coded as BN0, BN50, and BN100, respectively; N fertilizer (0, 50 and 100 kg·hm-2) alone coded as CN0, CN50, and CN100, respectively. Collection of N2O flux was conducted with a static chamber-gas chromatography method from November 2016 to October 2017. The results showed that the average N2O flux from all treatments ranked as SN100>CN100>SN50>CN50>BN100>SNO>BN50>CN0>BN0, and N2O fluxes represented the generally same trend throughout the observed period under different treatments. Compared with N0 (CN0, SN0, BN0) treated plots, N50 (CN50, SN50, BN50) and N100 (CN100, SN100, BN100) treatments increased the annual average N2O fluxes by 6.92% and 10.03%, respectively. Compared with CN0, CN50, and CN100, the same N-fertilizer level combined with the biochar reduced the annual average N2O fluxes by 0.49%, 3.15%, and 4.67%, respectively. In comparison with CN0, CN50, and CN100 treatments, the same N-fertilizer level combined with the straw increased the annual average N2O fluxes by 6.37%, 3.44%, and 2.73%, respectively. Both N fertilizer applied alone treatments and straw combined with N fertilizer treatments boosted N2O fluxes, biochar combined with N fertilizer treatments reduced N2O fluxes. Both N-fertilizer and straw significantly promoted the effect of the GWP of N2O fluxes, the biochar, however, had a reducing effect. The correlation analysis indicated that soil temperature and N2O flux had a significant positive correlation but the soil water content and N2O flux had a significant negative correlation (P<5%). The path analysis showed that the impact of soil temperature on N2O flux was greater than soil water content. Interaction analysis exhibited that no interaction effect between straw and N, biochar and N. N2O flux increased with increasing N application levels. Straw application enhanced N2O emission but biochar repressed N2O emission. Therefore, the biochar use had a great effect on the reduction of N2O emission in dryland.
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