朱利霞,岳善超,沈玉芳,李世清.施氮和覆膜对旱作春玉米农田土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):130~136
施氮和覆膜对旱作春玉米农田土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性的影响
Effects of nitrogen fertilization and film mulching on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity of spring maize in semi\|arid cropland
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.18
中文关键词:  氮肥  地膜覆盖  旱作春玉米  土壤微生物量  土壤酶活性
英文关键词:nitrogen fertilization  film mulching  dryland spring maize  soil microbial biomass  soil enzyme activity
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“旱作覆膜春玉米高产体系的温室气体排放及净温室效应研究”(41401343)
作者单位
朱利霞 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,Shaanxi 712100, China
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
岳善超 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,Shaanxi 712100, China
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
沈玉芳 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,Shaanxi 712100, China
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
李世清 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Yangling,Shaanxi 712100, China
College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为研究长期不同施氮水平和覆膜对黄土高原旱作春玉米高产体系土壤微生物活性的影响,设置田间试验包含施氮水平和覆膜2个因子,施氮量分别为0(N0)、100 kg·hm-2(N100)、250 kg·hm-2(N250)和400 kg·hm-2(N400),每个施氮水平下分别有覆膜(F)与不覆膜(B)处理,供试玉米品种为先玉335。2014年采集0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层土壤样品,测定土壤微生物量和酶活性,分析微生物量计量学特征并进行综合评价。结果表明,无论覆膜与否,土壤微生物量碳、氮和磷均随施氮量的增加而增加(除不覆膜时N400处理),施氮量高于250 kg·hm-2时土壤微生物量增加不显著。覆膜对土壤微生物量碳、氮无显著影响,而显著增加土壤微生物量磷;覆膜在一定程度上降低N0、N100和N400处理土壤微生物量碳氮比,施氮则显著增加微生物量碳氮比和微生物量氮磷比。0~10 cm土层脲酶活性随施氮量的增加而增加,但覆膜对脲酶活性无显著影响。覆膜和施氮均显著增加碱性磷酸酶活性,0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层覆膜N400处理碱性磷酸酶活性在相应土层最大,分别为1.49 mg·g-1·d-1和1.61 mg·g-1·d-1。主成分分析结果表明施氮量为250 kg·hm-2时土壤微生物活性最强。研究表明无论覆膜与否,250 kg·hm-2的施氮量是该地区适宜的施氮量。
英文摘要:
      To explore effects of long\|term N fertilization and film mulching on soil microbial activities in high\|yield and high\|efficiency dryland maize system on the Loess Plateau and provide microbial basis for reasonable fertilization and agronomic management in this region, a field study with two main treatments of film mulching (F) and N fertilization (N) were conducted. Nitrogen fertilization rates were 0 (N0), 100 (N100), 250 (N250), and 400 (N400) kg·hm-2. The maize variety used was Xianyu 335. Soil samples from layers of 0~10 cm and 10~20 cm were collected in 2014 and soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities were determined. Ecological stoichiometry of soil microbial biomass and comprehensive evaluation of microbial activities were analyzed using principal component analysis. Whether mulched with plastic film or not, soil microbial biomass C, N, and P increased with increasing N fertilization rates except for microbial biomass N in N400 without film mulching, and the increase effect of N fertilization disappeared when N fertilization rate was above 250 kg·hm-2. Film mulching had no effect on soil microbial biomass C and N, but significantly increased microbial biomass P.Film mulching decreased ratios of microbial biomass C to N in treatments of N0, N100, and N400. N fertilization significantly increased the values of microbial biomass C/N and microbial biomass N/P. Urea activity increased with increasing N fertilization rate in 0~10 cm soil layer, but it was not affected by film mulching in both layers.Both film mulching and N fertilization significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and the highest values were observed in FN400 (1.49 mg·g-1·d-1 in 0~10 cm layer and 1.61 mg·g-1·d-1, respectively).The principal component analysis results indicated that 250 kg·hm-2of N fertilization treatment shared the highest soil microbial activities whether with or without plastic film mulching. Overall, N fertilization at a rate of 250 kg·hm-2in soil with or without film mulching was optimal for soil sustainability in this region.
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