吕丽华,董志强,梁双波,张经廷,张丽华,贾秀领.不同灌溉模式下夏玉米产量形成特点[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):151~159
不同灌溉模式下夏玉米产量形成特点
Characteristics of yield formation of summer maize under different irrigation modes
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.21
中文关键词:  夏玉米  微喷灌  管灌  集成模式  产量
英文关键词:summer maize  micro sprinkler irrigation  pipe irrigation  integration mode  grain yield
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发项目(2016YFD0300106-5)
作者单位
吕丽华 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
董志强 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
梁双波 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
张经廷 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
张丽华 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
贾秀领 Scientific Observation and Experimental Station of Crop Cultivation in Northern China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China/Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035 
摘要点击次数: 118
全文下载次数: 117
中文摘要:
      为了筛选限水灌溉条件下较优的灌溉集成模式, 挖掘夏玉米高产潜力, 明确其高产的生理特性, 2015—2016年在河北藁城采用灌溉施肥方式(微喷灌和管灌)×密度(6.3×104、7.8×104株·hm-2)×收获期(9月25日和10月3日)再裂区试验, 研究了微喷灌和管灌为主的两种集成模式对夏玉米郑单958产量形成的影响。结果表明:微喷灌水肥一体化三次灌水施肥技术,改善了浅层土壤水分状况,土壤水分含量较管灌模式高5.9%~20.2%;其拔节期叶面积指数(LAI)较管灌高30.2%~44.2%, 生育后期SPAD值降低缓慢,较管灌高4.9%~5.9%,且作物生长速率(CGR)高9.0%~26.3%,这是其提高玉米千粒重和产量的主要原因, 并且收获越晚玉米微喷灌模式的增产效应越大,早收和晚收分别增产5.1%~6.0%和7.2%~10.8%。微喷灌模式高密度处理基部茎节抗倒伏指数、叶片SPAD值和CGR大多优于管灌低密度处理或与之相当,三者分别较管灌高4.0%~27.3%、-1.0%~3.7%和24.3%~37.7%。说明微喷灌模式优于管灌模式,且在此模式下增加种植密度是可行的。研究结果表明,微喷灌+增密+推迟收获时间3种技术综合应用可充分发挥玉米的增产潜力, 实现增产23.3%。
英文摘要:
      The objective of this study was to explore the optimization of the integration mode of irrigation under limited water condition, the high yield potential, and physiological characteristics of high yield for summer maize. A field experiment was carried out with re-split plot design (main plot of irrigation mode, split plot of density and re-split plot of harvest time) in Gaocheng of Hebei province from 2015 to 2016 to study the effects of two types of integrated irrigation modes on the grain yield formation of summer maize for Zhengdan 958 under two density conditions. The two irrigation methods were micro sprinkler irrigation (micro-irrigation) and pipe irrigation, with two planting densities of 6.3×104 and 7.8×104 plants·ha-1, and two harvest dates on Sep. 25 and Oct. 3. The results showed that soil moisture content in the top layer (0~60 cm) for micro-irrigation mode was 5.9%~20.2% higher due to 3X integration fertilization and irrigation. So, compared with pipe-irrigation, micro-irrigation mode increased maize plant growth due to sufficient shallow soil water conditions, and the LAI of jointing stage was 30.2%~44.2% higher, SPAD of late growth stage slowly decreased to just 4.9%~5.9% higher, and CGR was 9.0%~26.3% higher than that of pipe irrigation. So, the 1000-grain weight and yield of maize were increased, especially for micro-irrigation mode when harvest time was delayed, the increasing yield effect was more obvious with 5.1%~6.0% and 7.2%~10.8% increase in yield for early and late harvests than that of pipe irrigation, respectively. Basal stem lodging index, leaf SPAD values, and CGR of micro irrigation mode in high density condition were better than or equivalent to those indexes of pipe irrigation in low density, 4.0%~27.3%, -1.0%~3.7%, and 24.3%~37.7%, respectively. It showed that the micro-irrigation mode is better than the pipe-irrigation mode, and when planting density with micro-irrigation mode was increased, these indicators would not be worse. The potential increase of maize yield could be exploited when comprehensive application of the three technologies (micro irrigation + high density + delaying harvest time) that resulted in 23.3% increase in yield. This study provided a technical support for water-saving and high-yield cultivation of maize.
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器