张琴,王保爱,孙步功,冯岩.气吸式覆膜精量油菜播种机排种性能试验与优化设计[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(1):275~282
气吸式覆膜精量油菜播种机排种性能试验与优化设计
The performance test and optimization design of the air absorption film mulching precision rapeseed seeder
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.01.38
中文关键词:  油菜  气吸式  覆膜  精量播种  排种性能
英文关键词:rapeseed  air-suction  film mulching  precision seeding  seeding performance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51665001,51665002);国家公益性行业科研专项经费(201503124)
作者单位
张琴 Gansu Animal Husbandry Engineering Technical College, Wuwei, Gansu 733006, China 
王保爱 Gansu Animal Husbandry Engineering Technical College, Wuwei, Gansu 733006, China 
孙步功 College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
冯岩 Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd., Weifang Shandong 261000, China 
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中文摘要:
      针对目前高寒地油菜播种机普遍存在的重播漏播率高、人工劳动强度大、生长期缺水等问题,研究设计了一种气吸式精量播种机,一次性完成膜上播种、施肥、滴水灌溉、覆膜。分析了播种机主要结构、工作原理,对其关键部件进行结构设计,以排种盘转速、气吸室负压、排种盘型孔直径为试验因素,利用软件优化分析获得合理参数组合。结果表明:播种机排种盘转速197 r·min-1、气吸室负压2.5 kPa、排种盘型孔直径1.2 mm时,田间播种合格率为93%、重播率3%、漏播率1%,播种质量较好。田间试验表明上述参数组合下排种器工作性能满足油菜播种机工作性能要求,该研究为油菜精密播种机的研究和设计提供了理论和技术参数。
英文摘要:
      Due to high failure rate of rapeseed seeding, high labor intensity, water shortage during growth period, and needed reseeding in the cold and high elevation region, we tried to explore how to improve the rapeseed planting successful level. We designed a pneumatic precision seeder that could accomplish film seeding, fertilization, re-mulching, and drip irrigation in one-time. Based on the working principle of the main structure, seeder, and the structure design of the key parts, the disc rotational speed, suction pressure, chamber diameter of exhaust hole plate were evaluated as experiment factors. Then, a set of optimal parameters were selected by doing software optimization analysis. The results showed that a combination of parameters, 197 r·min-1 of the seeding ratational speed, 2.5 kPa of negative pressure suction chamber, and 1.2 mm of diameter of a row of seed holes resulted in significant improvement in a successful seeding rate of 93%, 3% of reseeding rate, and only 1% of missing seeding rate. The field experiment showed that this combination of parameters reduced labor requirement to achieve high rapeseed seeder performance. This research provided theoretical and technical foundations for the research and design of precision seeder for rapeseed.
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