段海霞,罗崇亮,Minha Naseer,熊友才.优化作物根系构型,发展生态农业[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):1~9
优化作物根系构型,发展生态农业
Optimization of crop roots architecture and eco-agriculture development
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.01
中文关键词:  作物根系  营养元素  逆境胁迫  根际微生物  分子机制  会议综述
英文关键词:crop root  nutrients  adversity stress  rhizosphere microbes  molecular mechanisms  conference summary
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B04);国家自然科学基金(31570415)
作者单位
段海霞 School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
罗崇亮 School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
Minha Naseer School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
熊友才 School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
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中文摘要:
      2017年10月在西北农林科技大学举行了“作物根系与根际互作国际研讨会”,会议主要讨论了作物根系与根际互作研究的理论、方法与应用。本文系统地总结了此次会议6个专题的研究进展:(1)作物根系对逆境胁迫的响应;(2)作物根系构型与功能;(3)根系营养元素的吸收与利用;(4)根际互作及其分子机制;(5)根际微生物;(6)根系研究方法及模型。会议涉及的主要成果有:改良的根系构型(小根系)是提高干旱地区作物产量的重要因素;旱地作物进化(人工选育)原则;提出作物根系可以利用根、土壤和微生物之间的相互作用提高营养物质利用效率;为盆栽植物根系研究开发了半水培表型系统(Semi-Hydroponic Phenotyping System);在作物抗逆胁迫的分子机制方面取得了进展,找到了一些调节根系构型、耐旱和抗洪性的关键基因,如GmPT家族基因可以调控根系构型和根瘤数目;探索有关研究作物根系构型的方法,改进了三维数字化方法并利用数据建立模型进行作物根系的三维可视化建模,进而监测作物营养条件。目前对作物根系和根际互作的研究主要侧重于优化根系构型,获得高产、高效和可持续的生态农业发展,其中应用型和多学科交叉研究比重较高,未来作物根系研究将朝着“多学科交叉的应用型研究”方向发展。
英文摘要:
      This paper summarized the research presentations of the International Symposium on Crop Roots and Rhizosphere Interactions in Yangling, Shaanxi in October 2017. Scientists and scholars gathered to communicate the outcomes and developments of researches on crop roots and rhizosphere interactions. The talks at the symposium covered 6 aspects: (1) root response to stresses; (2) root system architecture and functions; (3) nutrient absorption and utilization; (4) rhizosphere and molecular mechanisms; (5) rhizosphere microorganism; and (6) modeling of rhizosphere. It was emphasized that improved crop root architecture (small root system) plays important role in improving dryland crop yields. The principle of evolution (artificial breeding) of dryland crops was expounded. It was suggested that the interactions among roots, soil, and microorganisms could be used to improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization. The development of Semi-hydroponic Phenotyping System for pot-grown plants was highlighted, and advances in understanding the molecular basis of plant responses and resistance to stress were recognized, e.g. the GmPT family gene could regulate root system architecture and nodule number. Additionally, the new methods for exploring root architecture were explored and the 3-D modeling and visualization of crop root system were carried out, so as to monitor crop nutrition conditions. It was impied from the presentations that delegates doing research in the field of root and rhizosphere interactions focused on optimizing the root architecture, accessing to high yield, high efficiency, and sustainable development of eco-agriculture. The presentations demonstrated that scientists prefer to work with multi-disciplinary intersection and applied research rather than fundamental studies. The future development direction of crop root research seems to be “applied research based on multi-disciplinary intersection”. This conference was aimed to explore new ways of sustainable ecological agricultural development, which provides an important channel for experts and scholars to cooperate and establish platforms to demonstrate the achievements in the field. In conclusion, this international symposium provided new ideas for the research of related fields.
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