高佳,张恒嘉,巴玉春,王玉才,李福强,王泽义,张万恒,姜田亮.调亏灌溉对绿洲灌区膜下滴灌辣椒生长发育和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):25~31
调亏灌溉对绿洲灌区膜下滴灌辣椒生长发育和产量的影响
Effects of regulated deficit irrigation on pepper growth and yield under drip irrigation in oasis region
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.04
中文关键词:  调亏灌溉;膜下滴灌  辣椒;水分利用效率;产量;绿洲灌区
英文关键词:regulated deficit irrigation  drip irrigation  pepper  water use efficiency  yield  the oasis region
基金项目:甘肃省重点研发计划项目(18YF1NA073);国家自然科学基金项目(51669001)
作者单位
高佳 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张恒嘉 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
巴玉春 Administration of Hongshuihe River, Minle, Gansu 734500, China 
王玉才 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
李福强 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王泽义 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张万恒 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
姜田亮 School of Water Resource and Hydropower, Gansu Agricultural University,Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探明不同调亏灌溉对绿洲灌区辣椒全生育期生长和产量形成的作用机理,于2017年采用大田试验研究了调亏灌溉对膜下滴灌辣椒生长发育、产量和水分利用效率的影响。以全生育期充分灌水(75%~85%田间持水量θf)为对照,设置不同调亏灌溉处理:苗期轻度水分亏缺(65%~75% θf)WD1,苗期中度水分亏缺(55%~65% θf)WD2,苗期重度水分亏缺(45%~55% θf)WD3,苗期轻度水分亏缺-后果期轻度水分亏缺WD4,苗期中度水分亏缺-后果期轻度水分亏缺WD5,苗期重度水分亏缺-后果期轻度水分亏缺WD6,测定了各水分处理下的辣椒不同生育期生长指标(株高、叶面积指数和根冠比)及其产量和水分利用效率。结果表明:在辣椒苗期进行一定程度的水分胁迫均会抑制辣椒株高和叶面积的生长,其中WD2和WD3在后果期株高、叶面积指数分别比对照减小18.0%~37.4%和22.6%~54.6%,差异均显著(P<0.05,下同);WD2的根冠比在后果期较对照处理显著增加14.97%;WD1对辣椒产量影响不显著,WD2和WD3与对照处理相比分别显著减产了4.3%和17.2%。全生育期辣椒耗水量受水分调亏程度影响较大,耗水量随调亏程度增大与对照处理相比减小0.7%~19.8%;WD5的水分利用效率最高,为139.47 kg·mm·hm-2,产量达34 746.12 kg·hm-2;后果期进行轻度调亏不影响辣椒株高和叶面积指数,且在不减产的情况下水分利用效率提高9.20%。因此,苗期施加中度水分调亏,后果期施加轻度水分调亏,其他阶段进行充分灌溉是实现绿洲灌区辣椒节水、高产高效栽培的一种较优灌溉方式。
英文摘要:
      To ascertain the mechanisms of the pepper production under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) during the growth season, we conducted an experiment with full irrigation (75%~85% field water capacity of θf) as the contrast, irrigation at different reduced levels: mild water deficit in seedling stage (65%~75% of θf) as WD1, moderate water deficit in seedling stage (55%~65% of θf) as WD2, severe water deficit in seedling stage (45%~55% of θf) as WD3, mild water deficit in seedling stage\|mild water deficit in later fruit period as WD4, moderate water deficit in seedling stage\|mild water deficit in later fruit period as WD5, and severe water deficit in seedling stage\|mild water deficit in later fruit period as WD6. The growth indexes (plant height, leaf area index, and root crown ratio) and the yield and water use efficiency of pepper were determined. The results showed that the growth of plant height and leaf area were inhibited by the different RDI treatments at seedling stage; The plant height reduced by 18.0%~37.4% and the leaf area index decreased by 22.6%~54.6% of WD2 and WD3 significantly compared to CK respectively in the later fruit stage (P<0.05, the same below). The treatment with moderate WD2 at seedling stage made the root\|shoot ratio of pepper increase by 14.97% significiantly than CK at the whole pepper growing season. WD1 treatment had no significant influence on pepper yield; WD2 and WD3 treatments decreased 4.3% of yield and 17.2% of yield, respectively. The water consumption of pepper in different growing stages reduced by 0.7%~19.8% than CK during the whole growth period. The WUE of WD5 was the highest (139.47 kg·mm·hm-2), and its yield was 34 746.12 kg·hm-2. The plant height and leaf area index of pepper were not affected by the mild water deficit in later fruit stage, and the water use efficiency increased by 9.20% without yield reduction. Therefore, applying moderate water deficit (55%~65% of θf) during seedling period and applying mild water deficit (65%~75% of θf)during later fruit and full irrigation at other period was a better irrigation technique to achieve water\|saving, high\|yield and high\|efficient pepper cultivation in oasis region.
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