蔡利华,练文明,邰红忠,戴翠荣,吴博,卢金宝,王献礼,贺美球,周龙,赵静.南疆两种膜下滴灌布管方式对机采棉产量和品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):52~58
南疆两种膜下滴灌布管方式对机采棉产量和品质的影响
Effect of two kinds of drip irrigation pipe distribution under plastic film on yield and quality of machine picking cotton in southern Xinjiang
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.08
中文关键词:  膜下滴灌  窄行布管  偏置布管  机采棉;棉花产量  棉纤维品质
英文关键词:drip irrigation under plastic film mulching  PNR  BPA  machine picking cotton  cotton yield  cotton fiber quality
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系棉花产业技术体系(CARS-18-50);新疆生产建设兵团重大科技项目“机采棉配套农艺技术研究与示范”(2016AA001-2)
作者单位
蔡利华 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
练文明 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
邰红忠 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
戴翠荣 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
吴博 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
卢金宝 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
王献礼 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
贺美球 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
周龙 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
赵静 Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang 843300, China 
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中文摘要:
      为进一步提高南疆机采棉田水分利用效率,探索机采棉膜下滴灌一膜三管种植模式下最适宜的布管方式,2017年在新疆阿拉尔市兵团第一师农科所试验地开展田间试验。试验设计为窄行布管(滴灌带放在棉花窄行中间)和偏置布管(滴灌带置于棉花窄行外边10 cm处)2种处理,采用定点定时田间调查、取样测试等方法研究2种布管方式下棉花生长势、干生物量、叶面积、黄萎病发病率、产量和品质及0~40 cm土层土壤水、肥、盐运移的情况。结果表明:在棉花花铃期和盛铃期,窄行布管蕾花铃数和铃数显著高于偏置布管方式,分别高13.9%和5.9%;花铃期棉花叶片、茎秆、蕾花铃的干生物量和叶面积同样显著高于偏置布管方式,分别高 21.2%、10.3%、14.9%和29.2%;同时窄行布管方式能够显著降低棉花黄萎病的发病率,比偏置布管发病率低23%;窄行布管棉花生育期消耗根层土壤水分和氮、磷、钾养分量显著高于偏置布管方式,并且土壤脱盐效果相对于偏置布管较好,产量比偏置布管增加14.8%。综上可知,南疆棉田窄行布管方式更有利于提高根区土壤水分和养分利用率,降低含盐量,促进棉花营养生长和生殖生长,提高棉花产量。
英文摘要:
      To further improve water use efficiency of machine-picking cotton in southern Xinjiang, the most suitable drip irrigation pipe arrangement with one film and three tubes under plastic film mulching was explored. The test was conducted in Institute of Agricultural Sciences of 1st Division of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alar, Xinjiang in 2017. There were two treatments: one was pipe between narrow rows (PNR, drip irrigation pipe was placed in the middle of two cotton rows), and the other was bias pipe arranged (BPA, drip irrigation belt was placed 10 cm outside cotton narrow rows). The growth potential, dry biomass, leaf area, incidence of Verticillium wilt, yield, cotton quality and soil water, transport of fertilizer and salt in 0~40 cm soil layer were determined by fixed-point and fixed-time field investigation and sampling test. The results showed that the number of cotton flower buds and balls were significantly higher in the PNR than that in BPA at flowering-bolling stage and full bolling stage, and they were higher 13.9% and 5.9%,respectively. At flowering and bolling stages of cotton, the leaf area and dry biomass of leaves, stems, flowers and buds were also apparently greater in PNR than those in BPA, which were 29.2%, 21.2%, 10.3%, 14.9%, respectively. At the same time, the incidence of Verticillium wilt was 23% lower in PNR than that in BPA. The soil moisture, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients were consumed significantly higher in PNR than that in BPA. The soil desalination were more effective in PNR than that in BPA. The cotton yield was 14.8% higher in PNR than that in BPA. It is concluded that the system with pipes between cotton rows significantly improved utilization of soil moisture and nutrient, reduced soil salt content, promoted vegetative and reproductive growth of cotton and increased cotton yield.
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