王俊鹏,任小龙,蔡铁,张鹏,张久成.雨水导入表土以下不同深度土壤蒸发变化研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):59~63
雨水导入表土以下不同深度土壤蒸发变化研究
Study of soil evaporation influenced by introducing different depths of rainwater
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.09
中文关键词:  土壤水分  雨水接受深度  蒸发变化规律
英文关键词:soil moisture  rainwater receiving depth  evaporation variation
基金项目:陕西省农业创新与攻关“人工改变雨水承接空间位置的果园土壤水分布特征变化研究”(2015NY115)
作者单位
王俊鹏 College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
任小龙 College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
蔡铁 College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张鹏 College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张久成 Hanzhong Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Monitoring and Inspection Center, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723000, China 
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中文摘要:
      通过蒸发装置模拟试验,将雨水引入到表土层以下不同深度,从而改变土壤接受雨水的深度,测定土壤蒸发量,分析土壤蒸发强度、蒸发量、蒸发率和蒸发量的动态变化,确定改变雨水接受深度对土壤蒸发规律的影响。结果表明:雨水接受深度增加,土壤蒸发强度大幅度减少,雨水接受深度(H)为30 cm时,降水量(P)为30、20、10 mm处理的第1天蒸发强度分别为1.6、1.3、0.9 mm·d-1,仅为地表接受雨水处理蒸发强度的21.02%、15.85%和12.98%。土壤蒸发量与雨水接受深度和降雨量大小有关,随时间的延长,相同接受深度条件下,蒸发量随雨量增大而增大。地面接受雨水的土壤蒸发量与时间呈对数相关(R2=0.9959),雨水接受深度为30 cm则呈线性相关(R2=0.9924)。与地面接受雨水相比,地表以下土层接受雨水可降低土壤蒸发损失,随深度增加,土壤蒸发率降低,P10H0、P10H10、P10H20和P10H30处理18 d蒸发率分别为141.14%、109.03%、49.16%和24.75%;土壤水分的蒸发率也与降雨量有关,雨水接受深度为20 cm,降雨量分别为10、20、30 mm时,6 d内土壤水分蒸发率分别为26.76%、13.57%和9.71%%。
英文摘要:
      Through a simulation test with an evaporator, the rainwater was introduced into different depths below the surface to study the evaporation of soil moisture. The dynamic changes of soil water evaporation intensity, evaporation rate and evaporation were investigated to determine the impact of rainwater being introduced into various depths below surface on the soil water evaporation.The results showed that the increase in depth of introducing rainwater in to soil greatly reduced the evaporation capacity of soil water. When the depth of introduced rainwater (H) was at 30 cm,the evaporation capacities were 1.6, 1.3 mm·d-1 and 0.9 mm·d-1 with precipitations (P) at 30, 20 mm and 10 mm,respectively, which corresponded to 21.02%, 15.85% and 12.98% of the evaporation capacity when the rainwater was received on the surface. The total evaporation of soil moisture was related to the depth and precipitation that the rainwater was received. With the increase of time and the depth under the same conditions, the evaporation increased with the increase in rainfall. When the ground received rain, soil water evaporation was logarithmically correlated with time (R2=0.9959); When the depth of introducing rainwater at 30 cm, the soil water evaporation was linearly correlated with time (R2=0.9924).The P10H0, P10H10, P10H20 and P10H30 treatments had evaporation rates of 141.14%, 109.03%, 49.16% and 24.75% in day 18, respectively,which indicated that the depth played an important role in reducing the evaporation. Evaporation rate was also related to precipitation that the increase inprecipitation reduced evaporation rate, when the rainwater accepted depth was 20 cm and the precipitation was 10, 20 mm and 30 mm, the evaporation rate in 6 days were 26.76%,13.57% and 9.71%, respectively.
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