李孟婵,张鹤,杨慧珍,张健,张春红,王友玲,邱慧珍.不同原料好氧堆肥过程中碳转化特征及腐殖质组分的变化[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):81~87
不同原料好氧堆肥过程中碳转化特征及腐殖质组分的变化
Effects of different compost materials on carbon transformation and the change of humus during composting process
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.12
中文关键词:  好氧堆肥  碳转化  腐殖酸  有机碳  胡敏酸  富里酸
英文关键词:aerobic composting  carbon transformation  humic acid  organic carbon  humus acid  fulvic acid
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“农业面源和重金属污染农田综合防治与修复技术研发”专项“农业废弃物资源化利用机制”项目(2017YFD0800200);白银市白银区科技局项目“生物有机肥的研制及其对保护地蔬菜的生物效应研究”(2014-5N)
作者单位
李孟婵 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张鹤 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
杨慧珍 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张健 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张春红 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王友玲 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
邱慧珍 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Gansu Provincial Key Lab of AridLand Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨不同畜禽粪便(牛粪和羊粪)为主料,添加不同作物秸秆(玉米秸秆和小麦秸秆)为辅料在堆肥过程中的碳转化特征及腐殖质组分的变化规律,采用条垛式好氧堆肥研究了不同原料组合(T1:牛粪+玉米秸秆;T2:牛粪+小麦秸秆;T3:羊粪+玉米秸秆;T4:羊粪+小麦秸秆)在堆肥过程中总有机碳(TOC)、可溶性有机碳(DOC)和腐殖酸含量的碳转化特征以及胡敏酸(HA)和富里酸(FA)的含量变化规律。结果表明:所有处理的TOC含量随堆肥过程的推进而下降,至堆肥结束时T1~T4处理的TOC含量分别下降了22.1%、21.5%、23.6、23.7%;DOC含量也随堆肥过程的推进而降低,至堆肥第15天时降低至最低,T1~T4处理分别降低至6.57、5.47、4.73 g·kg-1和4.93 g·kg-1,但不同处理的变化规律明显不同:以牛粪为主料的T1和T2处理在第10天以前几乎无变化,而以羊粪为主料的T3和T4处理从一开始就迅速下降至最低值,至堆肥第15天时T1~T4处理的降幅分别为32.4%、36.5%、51.8%和39.3%;总腐殖酸(THA)含量的增加始于堆肥的第10天,第15天时达到最高值,最高值分别为25.5%、22.5%、29.8%和30.0%,整个堆肥过程中T3和T4处理显著高于T1和T2处理(P<0.05)。随堆肥过程的推进,游离腐殖酸(FHA)含量逐渐降低,堆肥结束时降幅为7.6%~18.0%; HA含量逐渐增加,至堆肥结束时增幅为65.4%~197.8%,堆肥过程提高了胡敏酸态碳。T3和T4处理的FHA和HA含量在整个堆肥过程中始终高于牛粪组合T1和T2处理。FA含量随堆肥进程推进逐渐下降,至堆肥结束时降幅为44.9%~54.9%。羊粪中较高含量的纤维素、半纤维素和HA可能是堆肥产品中THA和HA含量较高的主要原因,在以牛粪为主料的堆肥配料中适当加入羊粪可以提高堆肥产品的腐殖酸含量和胡敏酸态碳。
英文摘要:
      The carbon transformation and change of humus during composting with different raw materials were studied under aerobic composting condition. Two kinds of excrements of livestocks, cow dung, and sheep dung were combined with two types of straws, maize and wheat, as treatments.The four treatments includes: T1—cow dung+maize straw; T2—cow dung + wheat straw; T3—sheep dung + maize straw; T4—sheep dung + wheat straw. The results showed that the content of total organic carbon (TOC)of all treatments decreased throughout the composting process.The TOC content of T1 to T4 decreased by 22.1%, 21.5%, 23.6% and 23.7%, respectively. The changes in dissolved organic carbon(DOC)were consistent with TOC, and dropped to the minimum at day 15 as 6.57,5.47,4.73 g·kg-1 and 4.93 g·kg-1, respectively,but showed the different characteristics. T1 and T2 treatments of cow dung composters showed no changes until day 10 but the DOC of T3 and T4 treatments with sheep dung composts decreased at the beginning of the composting. By the 15th day of composting, the decreases of T1~T4 treatments were 32.4%,36.5%,51.8% and 39.3%, respectively. The total humicacid(THA)in composting started increasing at day 10 and continued increasing until reached maximum at day 15. The THA in T1-T4 increased to 25.5%, 22.5%, 29.8%, and 30.0%, respectively. The THA of T3 and T4 treatments were significantly higher than that of T1 and T2 (P<0.05). As the composting process progressed, the content of free humic acid (FHA) gradually decreased, and decreased by 7.6%~18.0% at the end of composting. The content of HA gradually increased, and increased by 65.4%~197.8% at the end of composting. The percentage carbon in HA increased during the composting process. The contents of FHA and HA in T3 and T4 treatments were higher than those in T1 and T2 treatments throughout the composting process. FA content decreased gradually with the composting process, and decreased by 44.9%~54.9% at the end of composting. The high content of cellulose and hemicellulose in sheep dung may contributed to the high content of free humic acid in composting process. It may suggest that more sheep dung should be added to increase the percentage carbon in HA forms and improve the quality of compost products.
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