字淑慧,吴开贤,欧阳铖人,范志伟,杨友琼,周锋,吴伯志.玉米和马铃薯根系分泌物对马铃薯生长的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):89~94
玉米和马铃薯根系分泌物对马铃薯生长的影响
Effects of root exudates of maize and potato on potato growth
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.13
中文关键词:  根系分泌物  玉米  马铃薯  化感效应  盆栽试验
英文关键词:root secretion  corn  potato  allelopathic effect  pot experiments
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31360306);公益性行业(农业)科研专项-西南坡耕地合理耕层构建技术集成示范(201503119-03-03);云南省玉米产业体系(2017KJTX002)
作者单位
字淑慧 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
吴开贤 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
欧阳铖人 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
范志伟 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
杨友琼 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
周锋 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
吴伯志 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China 
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中文摘要:
      通过溶液培养法获取供体玉米和马铃薯根系分泌物,用来浇灌盆栽受体马铃薯“会-2号”,设单株马铃薯浇玉米根系分泌物(P+M-RE)、单株马铃薯浇马铃薯根系分泌物(P+P-RE)和单株马铃薯浇自来水(CK)3个处理,研究玉米、马铃薯根系分泌物对盆栽马铃薯生长的影响。结果表明:(1)盛花期和成熟期,P+M-RE处理的块茎生物量比P+P-RE增加了42.4%和28.5%,比CK增加了28.8%和8.2%,P+P-R比CK减少了23.7%和28.4%,差异分别为显著和极显著;(2)分枝期、盛花期和成熟期与CK相比,P+M-RE处理地上和地下部分生物量分别提高了8.3%~12.7%和7.5%~45.6%,P+P-RE处理分别降低了1.7%~12.9%和5.5%~20.9%;两处理的茎叶比均比CK低,根冠比在盛花期和成熟期比CK提高了64.1%、42.5%和56.8%、40.0%;(3)观测期内,P+M-RE处理叶片、茎秆、根系和块茎的化感敏感指数RI>0,表现为促进作用,敏感程度为根系>叶>块茎>茎秆;P+P-RE处理根系RI<0,叶片、块茎在分枝期和盛花期RI>0,成熟期为RI<0,整体表现为抑制作用;(4)盛花期马铃薯干物质转移率(DMME)及贡献率(DMCR)P+M-RE处理比CK分别提高了45.6%和48.0%,P+P-RE处理比CK分别提高了30.7%和43.9%。由此说明,玉米根系分泌物对马铃薯地上茎叶和地下根系及块茎生长具有净促进作用,有利于块茎的膨大,而马铃薯根系分泌物对自身地上和地下生长则具有抑制作用,影响了块茎膨大,这为揭示玉米||马铃薯体系增产机制提供了一定的理论依据。
英文摘要:
      In this experiment, root exudates of donor maize and potato obtained by solution culture method were applied on potato plants in pot. Three treatments including potato applied with maize root exudates (P+M-RE), potato applied with potato root exudates (P+P-RE), and potato applied with water (CK) were carried out to evaluate potato growth. The results showed that: (1) The tuber biomass of potato treated with P+M-RE increased by 42.4% and 28.5%, 28.8% and 8.2% than that treated with P+P-RE and CK at the flowering and mature stages, respectively, while the tuber biomass of potato treated with P+P-RE reduced by 23.7% and 28.4% compared to that of CK at two stages, respectively. The difference was significant or extremely significant. (2) At the branching, flowering and mature stages, biomass of aboveground and underground with P+M-RE increased by 8.3%~12.7% and 7.5%~45.6%, while those in P+P-RE decreased by 1.7%~12.9% and 5.5%~20.9% compared to that of CK; the stem and leaf ratio in both two treatments were lower than that in CK, while the root and crown ratio increased by 64.1% and 42.5%, 56.8% and 40% than that in CK in the flowering and mature stages, respectively. (3) During the observation stage, the response index (RI)>0 in leaf, stem, root, and tuber of potato treated with P+M-RE, and the sensitivity ranked as root>leaf>tuber>stem, showing a promotion action; P+P-RE treated potato root had RI<0, while P+P-RE treated leaf and tuber had RI>0 at the branching and flowering stages, and RI<0 at mature stage, which showed a inhibition action. (4) At the flowering stage, dry matter mobilization efficiency (DMME) and contribution rate (DMCR) increased by 45.6% and 48.0% with P+M-RE, and increased by 30.7% and 43.9% with P+P-RE compared to that with CK. It is suggested that the root exudates of maize roots can promote the growth of the potato shoots, roots, and tubers, which are beneficial to the tuber expansion, while the root exudates of potato had an inhibitory effect on aboveground and underground growth that affects tuber expansion. Our results provide a theoretical basis for revealing the yield increasing mechanism in maize and potato intercropping system.
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