杨清山,孙敏,高志强,张慧芋,张娟,梁艳妃,李念念.黄土高原休闲期深松后覆盖播种对旱地小麦产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):158~166
黄土高原休闲期深松后覆盖播种对旱地小麦产量的影响
Effect of sowing-mulching following subsoiling in fallow period on wheat yield in arid area on the Loess Plateau
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.23
中文关键词:  旱地小麦  休闲期深松  覆盖播种  土壤水分  产量
英文关键词:dryland wheat  subsoiling during fallow period  sowing-mulching  soil moisture  yield
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项经费(CARS-03-01-24);作物生态与旱作栽培生理山西省重点实验室课题(201705D111007)
作者单位
杨清山 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
孙敏 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
高志强 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
张慧芋 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
张娟 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
梁艳妃 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
李念念 College of Agriculture, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
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中文摘要:
      为明确旱地麦田休闲期深松、生育期覆盖对土壤水分的影响及其与产量构成因素的关系,探索旱地小麦增产增效的最佳蓄水保墒土壤管理技术,于2014-2016年在山西省闻喜县旱地麦田进行大田裂区试验,以休闲期深松和当地传统耕作(对照)为主区,以全膜覆土穴播、膜际条播、常规条播三种播种方式为副区,研究休闲期深松、生育期覆盖播种对土壤水分和产量及其构成因素的影响。结果表明:两试验年度休闲期深松耕作显著提高了播种期土壤蓄水量,0~300 cm土层较传统耕作多蓄水达24~33 mm;越冬-成熟期土壤蓄水量提高了12%~16%,休闲期土壤蓄水效率显著提高了18%~24%,降水生产效率提高了6%~11%,水分利用效率显著提高了15%~23%。2 a休闲期深松较对照小麦产量分别提高了12%~16%、18%~24%。休闲期深松条件下两种覆盖播种模式较常规条播产量显著提高了9%~13%、8%~21%;对照条件下,产量分别提高了6%~13%、12%~19%。2 a膜际条播较全膜覆土穴播产量分别提高了3%~7%、6%~12%,降水生产利用效率和水分利用效率均以膜际条播最高。年份对产量和穗数有极显著影响,休闲期深松效果大于播种方式效果。此外,本试验条件下,穗数的形成与越冬期上层土壤水分、拔节期中层土壤水分、孕穗期深层土壤水分相关性极显著。产量的形成与越冬期上层、拔节期上层和中层、孕穗期和开花期深层水分相关性极显著。休闲期深松可实现蓄水增产,土壤蓄墒每增加1 mm,2 a休闲期增墒增产量分别达26 kg·hm-2、46 kg·hm-2,且结合膜际条播蓄水对产量的贡献最高。总之,休闲期采用深松、生育期采用覆盖,均有利于提高花前土壤水分,增产主要通过提高穗数来实现,且降水少的年份增产效果明显。因此,休闲期深松结合生育期膜际条播处理是兼顾高产蓄水高效的耕作栽培方式。
英文摘要:
      In order to better understand the effect of subsoiling in fallow period and sowing-mulching in growth stage on soil water in wheat field and its relationship with the yield components, we studied the soil management technology of retaining water and soil moisture for improving yield and water efficiency on dry land wheat. In 2014-2016, a split field experiment was carried out in Wenxi County in Shanxi Province. The subsoiling in fallow period and traditional farming (contrast) were used, and other treatments included film-covering soil hole sowing (FSH), film-mulch sowing (FM) and drilling sowing (DS). The results showed that in the two experimental years, the subsoiling in fallow period significantly improved the soil moisture at the sowing stage. The moisture in the 0~300 cm soil layer was between 24~33 mm more than that in the traditional farming; the water storage during the over-wintering-maturity period was increased by 12%~16%. In fallow period, soil water storage efficiency was significantly improved by 18%~24%, and the precipitation production efficiency was significantly increased by 6%~11%, and water use efficiency was significantly increased by 15%~23%. Compared with CK, the yields of subsoiling treatment during fallow period in the two experimental years were increased by 12%~16%, 18%~24%, respectively. Compared with DS, under the subsoiling conditions, yields of two coverage sowing modes significantly increased by 9%~13% and 8%~21%. Under the CK condition, the yield increased by 6%~13%, 12%~19%. During those two experimental years, the wheat yield of FM was higher than FSH, and increased by 3%~7%, 6%~12%, respectively. The precipitation production efficiency and water use efficiency were the highest among FM. Moreover, the year had a significant effect on yield and spike number, and the tillage of subsoiling effect during the fallow period was greater than the sowing mode effect. In addition, under the conditions of this experiment, the formation of number of ears was significantly correlated to the soil moisture at the upper layer of soil in winter, the middle layer of soil at jointing stage, and the deep layer of soil at booting stage. The formation of yield was significantly correlated to the soil moisture in upper layer of soil in winter, upper and middle layer of soil at jointing stage, deep layer of soil at booting stage and anthesis stage. In the fallow period, the tillage of subsoiling increased water storage and production, for every 1 mm increased in soil water storage, the increase in moisture and yield during two years was 26 kg·hm-2 and 46 kg·hm-2, respectively, and the combination of FM contributed the highest yield. In short, subsoiling during fallow period and coverage at growth stage were conducive to improve soil moisture before flowering mainly by increasing number of spikes to achieve higher yield. Its effect in increasing yield in years with less precipitation was more significant. Therefore, subsoiling in fallow period combined with FM during growth period is a better technique in obtaining high-yield, water-storage and high-efficiency cultivation.
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