郑家明,孙占祥,冯良山,杨宁,白伟,冯晨,张哲,蔡倩,向午燕.不同深松方式对玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):167~171
不同深松方式对玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响
Effects of different subsoiling methods on maize yield and water use efficiency
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.24
中文关键词:  深松方式  土壤容重  水分利用效率  产量  玉米
英文关键词:subsoiling method  soil bulk density  water use efficiency  yield  corn
基金项目:国家特支计划项目(青年拔尖人才);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划课题 (2014BAD12B05)
作者单位
郑家明 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
孙占祥 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
冯良山 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
杨宁 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
白伟 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
冯晨 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
张哲 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
蔡倩 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
向午燕 Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning 110161, China 
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中文摘要:
      由于我国北方地区长期采用小型机具进行耕作,导致农田耕层变浅、犁底层向上移动,土壤蓄水能力下降。为了明确不同深松方法对作物产量和水分利用效率的影响,提高作物抗旱能力和生产能力,本研究通过3 a定位试验,以春季旋耕为对照(CK),研究了秋季全方位深松(BS)、秋季连年垄台深松(RS)、初夏连年垄沟中耕深松(FS)和秋夏年际交替间隔深松(AS)4种深松耕作方式的蓄水和增产效应。试验研究结果表明,可以将不同耕作处理土壤容重特征表述为:CK为上虚下实型、BS为均匀疏松型、RS为垄虚沟实型、FS为垄实沟虚型(相对RS)、AS为年际疏松交替型。BS、AS、FS和RS不同年份土壤平均贮水量较CK增幅的变化范围分别是10.9~23.2 mm、10.9~17.2 mm、9.0~15.7 mm和6.0~8.2 mm,尽管AS的容重在年际间存在更替变化,但对年际间土壤平均贮水量影响较小。总体上BS和AS土壤贮水量高于CK和RS,提高10.9~23.2 mm,能够为不同降水年型下玉米稳产提供保障。尤其相对于其他3种深松方式,AS处理3 a研究数据玉米持续保持着高生产能力和水分利用效率,较CK产量提高17.22%~28.65%,水分利用效率提高0.27~0.73 kg·m-3; 2013年较BS的产量和水分利用效率差异不显著,其他两年分别提高1.00%~5.92%,0.06~0.20 kg·m-3;较FS产量提高5.59%~13.50%,2014年水分利用效率差异不显著,其他两年提高0.20~0.43 kg·m-3,因此AS是较为适宜的深松方式。
英文摘要:
      In northern China, the long-term use of small agricultural machinery for tillage has resulted in a thickened and uplifted plow pan, a decreased volume of nutrient-rich topsoil, and lower soil water holding capacity within the farmland. A three-year field research was conducted to investigate the effect of four subsoiling methods, including bulk subsoiling in autumn (BS), annual ridge subsoiling in autumn (RS), annual furrow subsoiling in early summer (FS) and inter-annual alternate zone subsoiling (AS), on soil water-holding capacity and agricultural output. These subsoiling methods were compared with that under the rotary tillage in spring (CK). The results suggested that the bulk density of soil varied with different tillage methods. The soil with BS was uniformly loose, while the soil of CK showed vertically uneven bulk densities of that the upper soil was loose while the lower soil was relatively compact. The soil with RS showed loose ridge soil and compact furrow soil, while the soil with FS yielded the opposite result compared to that with RS. The soil with AS tillage exhibited alternately variation of bulk density from year to year. The increases in the average soil water storage with BS, AS, FS, and RS during crop growth period compared with CK were 10.9~23.2 mm, 10.9~17.2 mm, 9.0~15.7 mm and 6.0~8.2 mm, respectively. Soil bulk density varied yearly with AS treatment, but it had limited effect on the average soil water storage. Overall, soil tilled by BS and AS maintained a high soil water holding capacity, soil water storage increased by 10.9~23.2 mm, which could stabilize the yield under different rainfalls between years. Compared to the other three types of subsoiling methods, production capacity and water use efficiency in AS treatment were persistently higher. Compared with CK, yield increased by 17.22%~28.65%, water use efficiency increased by 0.27~0.73 kg·m-3; compared with BS, there were no significant difference in yield and water use efficiency in 2013, but yield and water use efficiency increased by 1.00%~5.92% and 0.06~0.20 kg·m-3 in the other two years, respectively; compared with FS, yield increased by 5.59%~13.50%, there was no significant difference in water use efficiency in 2014, but increased by 0.20~0.43 kg·m-3 in the other two years. AS was a suitable subsoiling method.
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