方乾,赵龙山,吴发启.降雨强度对农业耕作措施水土保持作用的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(2):215~219
降雨强度对农业耕作措施水土保持作用的影响
Effect of rainfall intensity on soil and water conservation of tillage practices
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.02.31
中文关键词:  耕作措施  水土保持  降雨强度  坡度  减流效益  减沙效益
英文关键词:tillage practice  soil and water conservation  rainfall intensity  slope  sediment reduction benefits  runoff reduction benefits
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601293,41867014);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合基础\[2016\]1027;黔科合\[2016\]支撑2835号)
作者单位
方乾 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China 
赵龙山 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China 
吴发启 College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      利用人工模拟降雨试验,研究不同降雨强度下,不同农业耕作措施坡地水土流失特征。试验设计的坡地坡度分别为5°和15°,降雨强度分别为60、90、120 mm·h-1;耕作措施分别为等高耕作、人工掏挖和人工锄耕,以相同坡度的平整坡地作为对照。结果表明:(1)随着降雨强度的增大,各耕作措施坡地产流量显著增大1.51倍以上,最大增加幅度为等高耕作坡地的2.28倍。而坡地产沙量在降雨强度较小时增加不显著,当降雨强度增大到120 mm·h-1时,坡地产沙量显著增大;(2)与平整坡地相比,等高耕作在3个降雨强度下都具有明显的减流效益,减流量均大于15%,而人工锄耕和人工掏挖却不明显;(3)在5°坡地上,等高耕作和人工掏挖在3个降雨强度的减沙效益均大于25%,而人工锄耕减沙效益不明显;在坡度为15°、降雨强度为60 mm·h-1和90 mm·h-1时,人工锄耕和人工掏挖减沙效益与降雨强度关系无明显规律,在降雨强度为120 mm·h-1时,3个耕作措施都不能有效降低坡地产沙量。可见,水土保持农业耕作措施具有降低坡地产流量的作用,而对于坡地产沙的作用存在明显差异,在大坡度和大降雨强度下,不仅不能降低坡地产沙,反而加剧坡地土壤流失。
英文摘要:
      Tillage practices are one of the key measures for soil and water conservation in the agricultural lands. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rainfall intensity on soil and water loss in agricultural lands under different tillage practices and simulated rainfall. Rainfall intensity was at 60, 90 mm·h-1 and 120 mm·h-1 and two slopes of surface were 5° and 15°. Tillage practices included contour ploughing, deep hoeing, and shallow hoeing. Results showed that: (1) With increasing rainfall intensities, the runoff of agricultural land increased significantly by 1.51 times or more, and the maximum increase was 2.28 times with contour ploughing. However, the increase of the sediment yield was not significant when the rainfall intensity was low. When the rainfall intensity was increased to 120 mm·h-1, the sediment yield from slope field increased significantly; (2) Compared with the smooth surface, contour ploughing have the greatest effect on reducing runoff loss under three rainfall intensities at more than 15%, however, there was no significant change in that with deep hoeing and shallow hoeing; (3) With 5° of slope, contour ploughing and deep hoeing had more than 25% of sediment reduction under all three rainfall intensities, but no obvious sediment reduction was observed in the surfaces under shallow hoeing. On the surfaces with 15° of slope, sediment reduction benefits of deep hoeing and shallow hoeing was not significant under rainfall intensity of 60 to 90 mm·h-1. Three tillage practices was unable to significantly reduce sediment yield under 120 mm·h-1 rainfall intensity. It was shown that soil and water conservation tillage measures effectively reduced the runoff on sloped land, but the effectiveness on reducing the sediment yield varied significantly. Under the condition of steep slope and heavy rainfall, the tillage was not able to reduce the sediment yield but aggravated the soil loss of sloped land.
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