王顺才,李超,师守国,马锋旺.外源ABA对苹果砧木叶片解剖结构及内源激素含量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):31~40
外源ABA对苹果砧木叶片解剖结构及内源激素含量的影响
Effects of exogenous ABA on leaf anatomy and hormone contents of apple rootstocks
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.04
中文关键词:  苹果砧木  外源ABA  叶片解剖结构  气孔特性  内源激素含量
英文关键词:apple rootstocks  exogenous ABA treatment  leaf anatomical structure  stomata traits  endogenous hormone contents
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31660565);甘肃省高等学校科研项目(2016B-070);天水市科技局科技支撑计划项目(40101)
作者单位
王顺才 College of Bioengineering and Technology, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui, Gansu 741000, China 
李超 College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
师守国 College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
马锋旺 College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      通过光镜和透射电镜分别观察外源脱落酸(ABA)处理下楸子(Malus prunifolia)、平邑甜茶(M. hupehensis)和新疆野苹果(M. sieversii)叶片解剖结构及叶绿体超微结构的变化,利用扫描电镜和酶联免疫法分别研究ABA处理对叶片气孔特征及其内源激素含量的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,ABA处理下楸子、平邑甜茶和新疆野苹果的叶厚分别减少了7.93%、0.25%和0.81%,栅栏组织厚度分别减少了31.43%、8.53%和4.99%(P<0.05),海绵组织厚度分别增加了10.34%、6.14%和5.63%(P<0.05),叶肉组织结构疏松度(SR)分别增加了19.59%、6.55%和6.50%。ABA处理下楸子和平邑甜茶的栅栏组织/海绵组织厚度比值(P/S)及叶肉组织结构紧密度(CTR)较对照显著减少(P<0.05),其中,P/S值分别下降37.86%和13.82%,CTR分别下降25.46%和8.29%,而新疆野苹果的P/S值和CTR下降但不显著。此外,ABA处理下楸子和平邑甜茶的上表皮细胞厚度较对照分别增加了5.82%和6.43%,新疆野苹果的较对照减少了26.23%(P<0.05);楸子和新疆野苹果的下表皮细胞厚度较对照增加了12.09%和14.21%(P<0.05),平邑甜茶的较对照减少了12.56%。平邑甜茶和新疆野苹果叶片上下角质层厚度较对照显著增加(P<0.05),而楸子的变化不显著。在ABA诱导下,3种砧木的气孔密度、气孔大小(长度×宽度)及其开口度和开张比均不同程度地下降,其中,楸子的较对照分别下降了3.62%、7.12%×19.59%、67.60%和86.66%,平邑甜茶的分别下降了3.50%、4.99%×20.65%、32.42%和58.24%,新疆野苹果的分别下降了8.54%、0.92%×12.06%、20.37%和16.35%。ABA处理下3种砧木叶片细胞中叶绿体的数量变少,类囊体结构排列疏松,叶绿体上的淀粉粒趋于变小。外施ABA使3种砧木叶片内源ABA和玉米素核苷(ZR)的含量极显著增加(P<0.01),其中楸子ABA和ZR含量比对照分别增加30.83%和13.31%,平邑甜茶的分别增加62.40%和45.28%,而新疆野苹果的分别增加了37.07%和17.06%。楸子和新疆野苹果叶片的吲哚乙酸(IAA)和赤霉素(GA)含量无显著变化,而平邑甜茶叶片的IAA及GA含量比对照分别增加了62.62%和20.62%(P<0.01)。总之,在ABA处理下,3种苹果砧木的叶片组织解剖结构和气孔特征都发生旱生性结构变化,叶肉细胞中淀粉粒趋于变小,叶片内源ABA和ZR水平增加显著,而IAA和GA水平变化因基因型不同而存在差异。
英文摘要:
      The changes of leaf anatomical features and chloroplast ultrastructure of three apple grafting rootstocks, viz., Malus prunifolia, M. hupehensis and M. sieversii seedlings which were subjected to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) for 24 h, were investigated by light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of exogenous ABA on stomatal features and endogenous hormone contents in leaves of three apple grafting rootstocks seedlings were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with control plants (without ABA treatment), observation of LM showed that the leaf thickness of M. prunifolia, M. hupehensis and M. sieversii decreased by 7.93%, 0.25% and 0.81%, and their palisade tissue thickness significantly decreased by 31.43%, 8.53% and 4.99% (P<0.05), respectively. However, the sponge tissue thickness of these three apple rootstocks significantly increased by 10.34%, 6.14% and 5.63% (P<0.05), and their scattered rate (SR) increased by 19.59%, 6.55% and 6.50%, respectively. The palisade tissue/spongy tissue (P/S) of M. prunifolia and M. hupehensis significantly decreased by 37.86% and 13.82% (P<0.05), and their cell tightness rate (CTR) decreased by 25.46% and 8.29% under ABA treatment (P<0.05), and then those of M. sieversii also reduced but not significantly. The upper epidermis thickness of M. prunifolia and M. hupehensis increased by 5.82% and 6.43% under ABA treatment, while that of M. sieversii significantly decreased by 26.23% (P<0.05). The lower epidermis thickness of M. prunifolia and M. sieversii significantly increased by 12.09% and 14.21% under ABA treatment (P<0.05), while that of M. hupehensis decreased by 12.56%. The upper and lower cuticle thickness in leaves of M. hupehensis and M. sieversii significantly increased under ABA treatment (P<0.05), while the changes of upper and lower cuticular in leaves of M. prunifolia was not obvious. Observation by SEM indicated that the stomatal density, stomatal size, and the stomatal opening degree and rate of three apple rootstocks presented the decline of different degrees under ABA treatment. For example, those of M. prunifolia decreased by 3.62%, 7.12%×19.59%, 67.60% and 86.66%, and those of M. hupehensis decreased by 3.50%, 4.99%×20.65%, 32.42% and 58.24%, as well as those of M. sieversii decreased by 8.54%, 0.92%×12.06%, 20.37% and 16.35%, respectively. For three apple rootstocks, analysis of TEM probably indicated that chloroplast numbers in palisade tissue and spongy tissue cells reduced, thylakoid structure arranged loosely, and there was a slightly hint that starch grains in chloroplast became smaller in a shape after ABA treatment. Under ABA treatment, the contents of ABA and ZR in leaves of three apple rootstocks significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the control, the contents of ABA and ZR in M. prunifolia increased by 30.83% and 13.31%, those of M. hupehensis increased by 62.40% and 45.28%, and those of M. sieversii increased by 37.07% and 17.06%, respectively. There were no obvious changes in endogenous IAA and GA levels for M. sieversii and M. prunifolia leaves between control and ABA conditions, but those of M. hupehensis significantly increased by 62.62% and 20.62% under ABA treatment (P<0.01), respectively. Overall, the three apple rootstocks seedlings response to exogenous ABA treatment commonly have an adaptive change of xeromorphic structure between leaf anatomy and stomata traits, and the size of starch grains in chloroplast has an obvious degradation. The contents of endogenous ABA and ZR in leaves of three apple rootstocks show significant increases under ABA treatment, while the changes of endogenous IAA and GA levels are different due to their different genotypes.
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