闫士朋,焦润安,张俊莲,李健,李朝周.灌溉量对马铃薯生理特性及块茎产量品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):41~51
灌溉量对马铃薯生理特性及块茎产量品质的影响
Influence of irrigation amount on potato physiological characteristics and tuber yield and quality
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.05
中文关键词:  马铃薯  灌溉量  发育时期  生理特性  块茎产量  块茎品质
英文关键词:potato  irrigation amount  development stage  physiological characteristics  tuber yield  tuber quality
基金项目:国家马铃薯产业技术体系(CARS-09-P14);甘肃省科技厅科技支撑项目(1604NKCAa052-3)
作者单位
闫士朋 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
焦润安 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张俊莲 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
李健 Gansu Tiaoshan Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Baiyin, Gansu 730400, China 
李朝周 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      以 “大西洋”马铃薯品种为试验材料,在甘肃省中部沿黄高扬程灌区的白银市景泰县条山农场马铃薯种植基地设置小区试验,在各发育阶段分别设置5个水分梯度(原灌溉量的50%、75%、100%、125%和150%,其中原灌溉量,即100%灌溉量,为当地常用的、维持试验地25.8%左右土壤含水率的灌溉量),探讨马铃薯各发育阶段灌溉量对其生理特性及块茎产量、品质的影响。结果表明,在马铃薯的各发育阶段,随着灌溉量的增加马铃薯叶片净光合速率 (Pn)和蒸腾速率(Tr)分别先增加到最大值30.19 μmol·m-2·s-1、12.50 mmol·m-2·s-1,而后减小。当灌溉量为50%和150%时叶片Pn较100%灌溉量分别降低35.06%和19.59%。在不同发育阶段马铃薯叶片的生理活性对灌溉量表现出敏感响应。幼苗期75%灌溉量马铃薯叶片叶绿素含量、Pn和水分利用效率(WUE)分别为0.86 mg·g-1、21.88 μmol·m-2·s-1、2.29 μmol·mmol-1,较100%灌溉量分别提高了14.15%、0.31%、3.80%,而MDA含量、SOD活性及CAT活性最低,较100%灌溉量分别降低了8.40%、11.69%、8.23%;发棵期100%灌溉量处理下Pn和WUE最高,较50%灌溉量处理分别提高了53.99%、24.85%,此时脯氨酸含量、可溶性糖含量、POD活性最低,分别为89.06 μg·g-1、143.45 μmol·g-1、438.14 U·g-1,同时超氧阴离子产生速率较50%灌溉量也降低了26.07%;结薯期125%灌溉量处理的Pn和WUE最高,较100%灌溉量分别提高了19.16%、6.76%,而SOD、POD活性较100%灌溉量分别降低了0.93%、6.23%;成熟期75%灌溉量马铃薯叶片Pn最高,较其余各灌溉量处理的Pn分别提高了38.64%、13.81%、14.16%、21.27%,而MDA含量、超氧阴离子产生速率分别为21.107 μmol·g-1、6.07 nmol·min-1·g-1,较100%灌溉量分别降低了19.35%、2.26%。同一生育期低灌溉量(50%灌溉量)块茎中淀粉含量较低。在幼苗期75%灌溉量处理使得块茎的可溶性蛋白含量较100%灌溉量处理提高6.20%。发棵期100%灌溉量块茎中淀粉含量达到最高(15.14%),而结薯期125%灌溉量处理的块茎可溶性蛋白含量处于最高水平,较100%灌溉量下提高4.61%。成熟期75%灌溉量块茎淀粉含量处于最高水平,较100%灌溉量提高12.77%。结合块茎的总鲜重、商品薯率、淀粉含量、维生素C含量、可溶性蛋白含量、还原糖含量等指标,可知在幼苗期、发棵期、结薯期、成熟期灌溉量分别为原灌溉量的75%、100%、125%、75%时马铃薯块茎品质最优而且产量最高,分别为654.30、650.60、773.00、703.53 g·株-1
英文摘要:
      A plot experiment was carried out in the potato planting base of Tiaoshan farm, Jingtai county, the high-lift irrigation area along the Yellow River in central Gansu Province. “Atlantic” variety of potato was used as the test material. Five different irrigation amount were set up at each potato development stage (50%, 75%, 100%, 125% and 150% of the original irrigation amount. The original irrigation amount (100%) is the irrigation amount commonly used locally to maintain the soil moisture content of 25.8% in the test site). The effects of different irrigation amount on physiological mechanism, potato tubers yield and quality at different developmental stages were studied. The results showed that with the increase of irrigation amount, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr) of potato leaves increased to the maximum value of 30.19 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 12.50 mmol·m-2·s-1, respectively, and then decreased. When the irrigation amount was 50% and 150%, the Pn of potato leaves decreased by 35.06% and 19.59%, respectively, compared with the 100% irrigation amount treatment. The activities of potato leaves at different developmental stages were sensitive to the irrigation amount.In seedling stage, when the irrigation amount was 75%, the chlorophyll content, Pn and WUE of potato leaves were 0.86 mg·g-1, 21.88 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 2.29 μmol·mmol-1, and compared with 100% irrigation amount, it increased by 14.15%, 0.31% and 3.80%, respectively, while the MDA content, the activities of SOD and CAT were the lowest, compared with 100% irrigation amount, it decreased by 8.40%, 11.69% and 8.23%, respectively. In tillering stage, when the irrigation amount was 100%, Pn and WUE were the highest, compared with 50% irrigation amount, the improvement was 53.99% and 24.85%, respectively, while the proline content, soluble sugar content and POD activitiy were the lowest, were 89.06 μg·g-1, 143.45 μmol·g-1 and 438.14 U·g-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the superoxide anion generation rate also decreased by 26.07% compared with 50% irrigation amount.In tuber period, when the irrigation amount was 125%, the Pn and WUE were the highest, compared with 100% irrigation amount, it increased by 19.16%, 6.76%, respectively, and the activities of SOD and POD decreased by 0.93% and 6.23%, respectively. In maturity stage, when the irrigation amount was 75%, Pn was the highest,compared with the other irrigation amount, Pn of the potato leaves increased by 38.64%, 13.81%, 14.16% and 21.27%, respectively, while the MDA content and superoxide anion generation rate were 21.107 μmol·g-1 and 6.07 nmol·min-1·g-1, respectively,compared with 100% irrigation, 19.35% and 2.26% were decreased respectively. The starch content in tubers with low irrigation amount (50%) was lower in the same growth stage. The soluble protein content of tubers treated with 75% irrigation amount at the seedling stage was significantly increased by 6.2% compared with the 100% irrigation amount treatment. The starch content in tubers with 100% irrigation amount was the highest (15.14%) at tillering stage, while the soluble protein content in tubers was at the highest level under 125% irrigation amount, 4.61% higher than the 100% irrigation amount treatment. At maturity stage, the starch content of tuber was at the highest level with 75% irrigation amount, which was significantly increased by 12.77% compared with that 100% irrigation amount treatment. In terms of the overall consideration of the total fresh weight, marketing tuber rate, starch content, vitamin C content, soluble protein content and reducing sugar content of tubers, 75%, 100%, 125% and 75% of the original irrigation amount showed the highest yield and best quality of the potato tubers under seedling stage, tillering stage, tuber period and maturity stage, respectively, which were 654.30, 650.60, 773.00, 703.53 g per plant.
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