樊凯,高阳,王兴鹏,王洪博,段爱旺.根据气象信息指导南疆棉花膜下滴灌的试验研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):83~90
根据气象信息指导南疆棉花膜下滴灌的试验研究
Study on cotton drip irrigation under film mulching in southern Xinjiang based on meteorological information
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.10
中文关键词:  膜下滴灌  棉花  蒸发蒸腾量(ETc  气象信息  灌溉策略  水分利用效率
英文关键词:drip irrigation under mulch  cotton  evapotranspiration (ETc)  meteorological information  irrigation strategy  water use efficiency
基金项目:中国农业科学院科技创新工程;国家“十二五”重点研发计划(2016YFCD400208)
作者单位
樊凯 Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science/Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Requirement and Regulation, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China 
高阳 Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science/Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Requirement and Regulation, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
王兴鹏 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering of Tarim University, Alaer, Xinjiang 843300, China 
王洪博 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering of Tarim University, Alaer, Xinjiang 843300, China 
段爱旺 Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science/Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Requirement and Regulation, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了探索利用气象信息指导膜下滴灌棉花科学灌溉的可行性,在南疆阿拉尔布设田间试验,根据自动气象站采集的气象信息计算作物蒸发蒸腾量(ETc),当蒸发蒸腾量与降水量的差值累计达到30 mm时即进行灌溉。试验设置3个灌水定额处理,T1:24 mm,T2:30 mm,T3:36 mm,分别为水分亏缺量的0.8,1.0和1.2倍,同时设置1个当地生产中的常规灌溉处理作为对照(T4),重复3次。试验过程中,对不同处理棉田的土壤水分动态变化、植株生理指标、籽棉及皮棉产量、灌溉水利用效率和田间水利用效率进行了监测与分析。结果表明:根据气象信息指导灌溉的处理生育期耗水量在361.8~435.2 mm,且灌水定额越大,全生育耗水量越多,但均显著低于常规灌溉处理522.1 mm的总耗水量。根据气象信息确定灌溉时间的处理,籽棉产量与灌水定额呈显著的正相关关系,T3处理籽棉产量7 072.05 kg·hm-2与T4对照处理7 245.28 kg·hm-2的籽棉产量无显著差异,但灌水量却减少了164 mm;灌溉水利用效率随着灌水定额的增加而减小,但均显著高于对照处理。综合灌水量、产量及水分利用效率等因素考虑,认为当棉田作物蒸发蒸腾量与降水量的差值累计达到30 mm灌溉+灌水定额36 mm的组合,可以在保证棉花不减产的条件下,显著提高灌溉水利用效率和田间水利用效率,适用于南疆地区根据气象信息指导膜下滴灌棉花的灌溉管理。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the feasibility of guiding cotton drip irrigation under mulch according to meteorological information in southern Xinjiang, a field experiment was conducted in Alar, southern Xinjiang. The irrigation was carried out when the difference between evapotranspiration and precipitation reached 30 mm. The evapotranspiration of crops (ETc) was calculated from weather data collected by automatic meteorological station. There were four treatments including three irrigation quotas (T1:24 mm, T2:30 mm, and T3:36 mm) and a conventional irrigation treatment (T4), which was considered as a control. Each treatment was triplicated. During the experiment, the dynamic changes in soil moisture, physiological indexes of plant, yield of seed-cotton and lint-cotton, irrigation water use efficiency, and field water use efficiency were monitored and analyzed. The results showed that the water consumption of the treatments guiding irrigation by meteorological information was between 361.8~435.2 mm, it was noticed that the greater irrigation quota was, the more water consumption during the whole growth period was. However, it was significantly lower than the total water consumption of 522.1 mm under conventional irrigation. Furthermore, unginned cotton yield was positively correlated with irrigation quota. There was no significant difference in unginned cotton yield between T3 treatment (7 072.05 kg·hm-2) and T4 control treatment (7 245.28 kg·hm-2). The irrigation water use efficiency decreased with increasing irrigation quota but was significantly higher than that of the control treatment. Taking in account the yield and water use efficiency of different irrigation treatments, it is concluded that when the difference of evapotranspiration and precipitation was 30 mm, 36 mm irrigation quota can significantly improve the irrigation water use efficiency and field water use efficiency without impacting cotton yield, which is suitable for southern Xinjiang.
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