李玥,王春霞,何新林.节水灌溉技术下农业种植结构优化模型研究[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):104~109
节水灌溉技术下农业种植结构优化模型研究
Optimization model of agricultural planting structure under water-saving irrigation technology
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.13
中文关键词:  农业种植结构  优化模型  膜下滴灌  经济效益  生态环境状况指数  石河子灌区
英文关键词:agricultural planting structure  optimization model  mulched drip irrigation  economic benefit  ecological environment condition index  Shihezi irrigation area
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“西北内陆区保水节水技术集成与应用”(2017YFC0404304);石河子大学高层次人才科研启动资金项目(RCZX201129)
作者单位
李玥 College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
王春霞 College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
何新林 College of Water and Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
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中文摘要:
      以往种植结构优化研究通常以经济效益最大为主要适用条件,对生态效益的侧重度较低,不适用于生态环境脆弱的西北地区。基于节水灌溉技术下构建农业种植结构优化模型,以新疆石河子灌区为研究区,以不同灌溉技术比例下经济效益最高为目标,在农业种植总面积、农业种植用水量等常规约束条件中增加了综合生态环境状况指数的计算,并以此评价优化结果的生态效益,建立线性规划模型。结果表明,与现状年相比较,随着膜下滴灌技术应用比例的下降,灌区主要农作物种植总面积有所减少,最低减至2.83×104 hm2;当膜下滴灌技术应用面积占总播种面积的比例为0.84和0.82时,经济效益分别增长了0.05%和降低了0.5%,保证了经济的相对稳定,此时综合生态环境状况指数也较高,分别为22.58和22.94,有利于绿洲灌区生态环境保护与改善;此2种膜下滴灌技术应用比例0.84和0.82条件下,灌区主要作物种植结构优化分别为:膜下滴灌面积小麦1 100.0 hm2、玉米2 373.3 hm2、棉花17 286.7 hm2和桃子728.0 hm2,其他灌溉技术小麦206.7 hm2、玉米453.3 hm2、棉花3 293.3 hm2和桃子140.0 hm2;膜下滴灌面积小麦1 073.3 hm2、玉米2 320.0 hm2、棉花16 713.3 hm2和桃子710.7 hm2,其他灌溉技术小麦233.3 hm2、玉米506.7 hm2、棉花3 666.7 hm2和桃子153.3 hm2
英文摘要:
      In the past, the research on the optimization of planting structure usually takes the economic benefit as the main applicable condition, and the side severity of ecological benefit is low, which is not suitable for the northwest region with fragile ecological environment. Based on water-saving irrigation technology, an optimization model of agricultural planting structure was constructed. The model took the Shihezi irrigation area in Xinjiang as the research area, with the highest economic benefit under the different irrigation techniques as the target. The comprehensive eco-environmental condition index was added to the conventional constraints such as total agricultural planting area and water consumption for agricultural planting, and the ecological benefits of the optimized results were evaluated, and a linear programming model was established. The results showed that, with the decrease of the proportion of drip irrigation under mulch, the total area of agricultural planting decreased to 28,300 hm2 compared with the current year. When the proportion of application area of drip irrigation under mulch to total sowing area was 0.84 and 0.82, the economic benefit increased by 0.05% and decreased by 0.5%, respectively, which ensured the relative stability of economy. The comprehensive ecological environment index was 22.58 and 22.94, respectively, which was beneficial to the protection and improvement of ecological environment in oasis irrigation area. Under the application ratio of these two drip irrigation techniques, the main crop planting structure in irrigation area was optimized as follows: (1)Wheat 1 100.0 hm2, maize 2 373.3 hm2, cotton 17 286.7 hm2 and peach 728.0 hm2 under mulch drip irrigation; wheat 206.7 hm2, maize 453.3 hm2, cotton 3 293.3 hm2 and peach 140.0 hm2 under other irrigation techniques. (2)Wheat 1 073.3 hm2, maize 2 320.0 hm2, cotton 16 713.3 hm2 and peach 710.7 hm2 under mulch drip irrgation; wheat 233.3 hm2, maize 506.7 hm2, cotton 3 666.7 hm2 and peach 153.3 hm2 under other irrigation techniques.
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