邱晓丽,周洋子,董莉,张春红,李志龙,王友玲,邱慧珍.生物有机肥对马铃薯根际土壤生物活性及根系活力的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):162~169
生物有机肥对马铃薯根际土壤生物活性及根系活力的影响
Effects of bio-organic fertilizer on bioactivity and root activity of rhizosphere soil of potato
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.21
中文关键词:  生物有机肥  马铃薯  根际土壤微生物  根系活力  盆栽试验
英文关键词:biological organic fertilizer  potato  rhizosphere soil microorganism  root activities  pot experiment
基金项目:国家重点研发计划“农业面源和重金属污染农田综合防治与修复技术研发”专项“农业废弃物资源化利用机制” (2017YFD0800200);白银市白银区科技局项目“生物有机肥的研制及其对保护地蔬菜的生物效应研究”(2014-5N)
作者单位
邱晓丽 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
周洋子 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
董莉 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张春红 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
李志龙 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王友玲 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
邱慧珍 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Arid Land Crop Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      针对大量化肥长期施用对马铃薯田土壤造成的生物活性降低等问题,利用根际益生菌(PGPR)制成生物有机肥,通过盆栽试验,研究了不施肥(对照,CK)以及分别施化肥(CF)、普通有机肥(OF)和5种生物有机肥(BOF1,BOF2,BOF3,BOF4和BOF5)对马铃薯根际土壤生物活性和根系活力的影响。结果表明,在马铃薯的成熟期,5种生物有机肥处理的可培养细菌数量平均比CF及OF高52%和37%,微生物量碳比CF和OF处理平均增加了30%,其中以BOF3效果最明显,比其它生物有机肥处理的可培养细菌数量和微生物量碳增加达3%~7%和2%~7%;且土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和磷酸酶活性显著提高(P<0.05),相比CF和OF,5种生物有机肥处理土壤酶活性的增幅为11%~114%;根系活力分别增加了265%和224%,块茎产量分别增加了16%和21%,根系活力和块茎产量的提高也以BOF3效果最明显,其根系活力比BOF5高出166%,其块茎产量比其它生物有机肥处理的增幅为5%~9%。说明生物有机肥有助于提高土壤的生物活性,改善马铃薯的根际环境,进而提高了马铃薯的根系活力,增加了马铃薯的块茎产量。
英文摘要:
      The long-term application of a large amount of chemical fertilizer to potato field can cause the decrease in soil bio-activity. To solve this problem, we studied the effect of the bio-organic fertilizer with the selected plant growth promoting rhizobaeteria (PGPR) on the soil bio-activity. The treatments included no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), ordinary organic fertilizer (OF), and five biological organic fertilizers (BOF1, BOF2, BOF3, BOF4 and BOF5) on the bioactivity and root activities of potato rhizosphere soil through a pot experiment. The result showed that during the potato maturity period, the five types of bio-organic fertilizer treatments increased cultivable bacteria by 52% and 37% on average and microbial biomass carbon by 30% compared with the CF and OF treatments. The increase in cultivable bacteria and microbial carbon of BOF3 compared with that of other biological organic fertilizers was 3% to 7% and 2% to 7%, respectively. Soil urease, sucrase, and phosphatase activities also increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with that of the CF and OF treatments, the increase of enzyme activities was 11%~114%. The root activities and tuber yield also increased with the improvement of soil biological activities. The most significant effects was with BOF3, compared with CF and OF, the root activities of the five bio-organic fertilizers increased by 265% and 224%, respectively, and the tuber yield increased by 16% and 21%. The root activity of BOF3 was 166% higher than that of BOF5. The tuber yield of BOF3 was higher than that of other biological organic fertilizer treatments by 5% and 9%, respectively. It indicated that increase in the number of cultivable bacteria and actinomycetes resulted from biological organic fertilizers increased the biomass carbon (nitrogen) and enzyme activities of the soil, thus improved the biological activity of the soil,created a favorable rhizosphere environment for potato roots, and consequently improved the root vitality and promoted the growth of the potato.
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