陈影慧,程宏波,刘媛,常磊,柴守玺,杨德龙.覆盖栽培模式对冬小麦花后旗叶光合特性及产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):192~199
覆盖栽培模式对冬小麦花后旗叶光合特性及产量的影响
Effect of covering on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf during post-anthesis and yield in winter wheat
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.25
中文关键词:  秸秆带状覆盖  冬小麦  光合特性  叶绿素荧光动力参数  干物质积累转运  产量
英文关键词:bundled-straw cover  winter wheat  photosynthetic performance  kinetic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence  dry matter accumulation and translocation  yield
基金项目:甘肃省自然科学基金项目(18JR3RA173);甘肃农业大学盛彤笙基金项目(GSAU-STS-1536);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-3-2-49);甘肃省现代农业产业技术体系项目(GARS-01-04)
作者单位
陈影慧 Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science /College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
程宏波 Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science /College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
刘媛 Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science /College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
常磊 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
柴守玺 College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
杨德龙 Gansu Provincial Key Laboratory of Aridland Crop Science /College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探究旱地小麦秸秆带状覆盖栽培增产的光合特性和干物质积累转运的特征,在甘肃省半干旱雨养农业区以“陇中2号”为材料,研究了秸秆带状覆盖栽培(BS)、地膜覆盖栽培 (PF)和无覆盖露地栽培(CK)3种栽培模式下冬小麦花后旗叶光合特征、叶绿素荧光动力参数、干物质积累转运及产量的差异。结果表明:与CK相比,BS和PF显著提高了花后旗叶光合势、叶绿素和类胡萝卜素含量及叶绿素/类胡萝卜素比率,且BS在生育后期优于PF。BS整个生育期的净光合速率、气孔导度均高于CK,而PF仅生育前期发挥正效应,生育中、后期出现了负效应。BS生育前中期胞间CO2浓度、生育中后期旗叶瞬时水分利用效率均高于PF和CK,前者分别高出2.8%~8.2%和6.7%~11.3%,后者分别高出30.3%~44.8%和27.5%~39.3%。PF在灌浆中期以前,BS在整个花后生育期显著提高了小麦花后旗叶Fv/Fm、F′v/F′m、ΦPSⅡ、qP、ETR,降低了NPQ。BS较PF和CK显著提高了花后干物质输入籽粒量和对籽粒粒重的贡献率,2个指标分别增加2.6%、1.0%和14.2%、8.6%。BS显著增加了单位面积穗数,提高了产量,较CK增产35.4%。说明秸秆带状覆盖能显著改善旱地冬小麦花后光合效率,促进干物质积累转运,从而达到增产的效果。
英文摘要:
      In order to accurately understand the characteristics of photosynthesis and accumulation and remobilization of shoot dry matter for yield improvement of dryland wheat grown under bundled-straw covering condition, a wheat cultivar of Longzhong 2 was used as material to determine differences in photosynthesis of flag leaf, chlorophyll fluorescence dynamic parameters, accumulation and remobilization of shoot dry matter during post-anthesis and grain yield among the different treatments including bundled straw covering cultivation (BS), plastic film mulching cultivation (PF) and cultivation without any covering (CK) in the semiarid rain-fed region of Gansu Province. The result showed that BS and PF significantly improved photosynthetic potential, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoid of flag leaf during post-anthesis, compared with CK. The effects of BS was more remarkable than those of PF, especially in the late growth period. The leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were higher under BS than that under CK during the whole growth stage. In this case, PF just showed positive effects in earlier growth stage, but negative effects in mid-later growth stage. The intercellular CO2 concentration in early and middle stage and the instantaneous water use efficiency in mid-later growth stage under BS were higher than those under both PF and CK. The former increased by 2.8%~8.2% and 6.7%~11.3%, respectively, while the latter increased by 30.3%~44.8% and 27.5%~39.3%, respectively. The Fv/Fm, F′v/F′m, ΦPSⅡ, qP and ETR of flag leaf increased but the NPQ decreased before the middle grain-filling stage under PF and during the whole growth period under the BS. Compared with both PF and CK, BS significantly raised the input amount of dry matter to kernels by 2.6% and 1.0% and the contribution rate to grain weight by 14.2% and 8.6% during post-anthesis, respectively. BS greatly increased spike number per unit area and thus enhanced yield by 35.4%. It was indicated that BS treatment could significantly improved photosynthetic efficiency and accumulation and transportation of dry matter, and consequently increased grain yield of dryland winter wheat.
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