徐国凤,同延安.不同改良措施对卤阳湖盐碱地土壤性质及玉米产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(3):232~237
不同改良措施对卤阳湖盐碱地土壤性质及玉米产量的影响
Effect of soil properties and maize yield in different improvement measures of saline-alkali soil in Luyang Lake
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.03.30
中文关键词:  盐碱地  改良措施  土壤性质  脱盐率  经济效益  玉米产量
英文关键词:saline-alkali soil  improvement measures  soil properties  desalination rate  economic benefit  maize yield
基金项目:陕西省渭南卤阳湖盐碱地综合治理“全球环境基金(GEF)支持项目”(G0331)
作者单位
徐国凤 College of Natural Resource and Environment Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
同延安 College of Natural Resource and Environment Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      利用农艺、生物、化学措施在陕西渭南市卤阳湖进行盐碱地改良田间试验,研究其对盐碱地的改良效果,选出适宜的当地盐碱土改良措施,为采取合理措施治理盐碱地提供依据。试验设9个处理,分别为对照、垄沟覆膜、平地覆膜、覆秸秆、生物有机肥、羊粪、腐殖酸、石膏、过磷酸钙处理。结果表明:所有处理均能提高玉米产量,与对照相比,羊粪、腐殖酸、过磷酸钙处理显著提升玉米产量,增产幅度分别为15.2%、16.3%、14.6%。除了平地覆膜处理,其它处理的百粒重均显著高于对照,增幅在12.7%~19.1%之间。不同改良措施条件下,0~20 cm土层土壤养分均有不同程度增加,其中有机质增幅为0.6%~20.9%、速效氮增幅为30.6%~109.3%,速效磷增幅为4.5%~247.4%、速效钾增幅为23.4%~69.2%;土壤pH、全盐含量、钠离子均有不同程度的降低,其中垄沟覆膜与羊粪处理降低土壤pH、全盐含量、土壤Na+效果显著,pH分别降低2.18%、2.45%,脱盐率分别达到20.4%、20.2%。垄沟覆膜、覆秸秆、过磷酸钙处理的经济效益与对照相比分别提高了9.44%、12.88%、4.87%。针对该区域盐碱地现状,从降盐效果考虑,推荐垄沟覆膜、羊粪为最佳的改良措施;综合改良效果与经济效益,垄沟覆膜为最优改良措施。
英文摘要:
      In order to select appropriate saline-alkali soil improvement measures, a field experiment was carried out by using agronomic, biological and chemical measures in saline-alkali soil in Luyang Lake of Weinan and provide reasonable basis for saline land improvement. There were nine treatments in the experiment including control, high ridge with mulching film, film mulching, covered straw, bio-organic fertilizer, sheep manure, humic acid gypsum and calcium superphosphate. The results showed that all treatments increased the yield of maize over the control. Sheep manure,humic acid and calcium superphosphate treatments significantly increased maize yield and the increase rates were 15.2%, 16.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. In addition to film mulching treatment, the hundred-grain weight of the other treatments was significantly higher than that of the control in a range of 12.7% to 19.1%. Under different improvement measures, soil nutrients in 0~20 cm layer increased at various degrees, among which the organic matter increased by 0.6%~20.9%, the available nitrogen increased by 30.6%~109.3%, the available phosphorus increased by 4.5%~247.4%, and the available potassium increased by 23.4%~69.2%.The soil pH, total salt content, and sodium content all decreased at some degree. Among them, high ridge with mulching film and sheep manure significantly reduced soil pH, total salt content, and soil Na+. Soil pH was reduced by 2.18% and 2.45% by the two treatments, respectively and desalination rate reached 20.4%, 20.2%, respectively. The economic banefits of high ridge with mulching film, straw-covered and calcium superphosphate treatments increased by 9.44%, 12.88% and 4.87% compared with the control. According to current situation of saline-alkali land in this region, from the perspective of salt-reducing effect, high ridge with mulching film and sheep manure treatment are recommended as the best improvement measures; Comprehensive improvement effects and economic benefits, high ridge with mulching film is the optimal improvement measure.
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