刘恋,张敬晓,靳姗姗,孙波,董建国,汪有科.限定枣树生长下的枣林耗水特征[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):10~15
限定枣树生长下的枣林耗水特征
Characteristics of water consumption of jujube forests with limited growth
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.02
中文关键词:  土壤干化  旱作枣树  生物量  耗水深度  水分利用效率
英文关键词:soil desiccation  jujube aerobic cultivation  biomass  consuming water depth  water use efficiency
基金项目:陕西统筹项目(2016KTZDNY-01-05)
作者单位
刘恋 Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张敬晓 Hebei College of Water Resources and Electric Engineering, Cangzhou Hebei 061000, China 
靳姗姗 College of Water Resources and Architecture Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
孙波 Hubei Provincial Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Planning, Survey and Design, Wuhan, Hubei 430000, China 
董建国 College of Water Resources and Architecture Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
汪有科 College of Water Resources and Architecture Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了减少黄土高原地区枣林地水资源消耗,减轻枣林土壤干化,完善枣林地水分管理,实现可持续发展,以黄土高原地区山地枣树为研究对象,将枣树栽植在面积为6 m2,深度分别为2、3、4、5、6 m的小区内,通过枣树修剪控制树体规格及枝条数量和长度,测定土壤水分含量与枣树生长指标,测算枣树的单株生物量、耗水量及水分利用效率,分析枣树生物量与耗水特性的关系,探索严格限定枣树生长情况下的枣林耗水特征。经过三年连续监测发现:修剪后的5 a枣树耗水深度约为3 m,与常规矮化密植山地5 a枣树相比减少1.4 m左右,枣树耗水深度显著降低。各小区土壤储水量的变化情况与年降水量的变化规律相同,虽然在干旱年(2015年)各小区储水量相比2014年明显下降,各小区土壤储水量均存在亏缺现象,但2016、2017年的土壤水分通过自然降水恢复,相比2014年初始土壤储水量有提升。3 a枣树平均耗水量为520.78 mm和当地平均降雨量548.40 mm基本持平,说明林地土壤水分补充与消耗基本持平。研究表明:控制枣树生长具有调控枣林地耗水的作用,证明试验采取的修剪强度符合当地降雨条件,可以作为节水型修剪的控制指标;枣树在有限的生长空间内依靠自然降雨正常生长,试验限定枣树生长并没有降低枣树产量;与常规矮化密植山地枣树相比,试验枣树的生物水分利用效率和产量水分利用效率均有所提升。恰当的修剪可以限制营养生长,促进生殖生长,从而提高枣树水分利用效率,对缓解当地深层土壤水分干化具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      Soil erosion is a serious problem on the Loess Plateau, and soil desiccation is common in the artificial jujube forest. In order to reduce the consumption of water resources in the jujube forest on the Loess Plateau, minimize soil desiccation, and improve water management in the jujube forest to achieve sustainable development, jujube trees in the mountainous region of the Loess Plateau were taken as the research object in this study, and the jujube trees were planted in communities with an area of 2×3 m2 and depths of 2, 3, 4, 5 m and 6 m, respectively. We pruned the jujubes to control the size of the tree body and the number and length of branches, and measured soil moisture and jujube growth index. Then, the individual biomass of jujube, water consumption, and water use efficiency were calculated to analyze the relationship between jujube biomass and water consumption. Through these, we tried to reveal the characteristics of water consumption when the jujube growth was strictly limited. After 3 years’ monitoring, the consuming water depth of 5 a jujubes was controlled at around 3 m, which was 1.4 m less than the dense jujube plantations. The change of water storage in each community was the same as that of precipitation. Although the water storage in each community was significantly lower in dry years (2015) than in 2014, and soil water storage in each community was deficient, the soil water in 2016 and 2017 was recovered by natural precipitation, which was an improvement over the initial soil water storage in 2014. Within 3 years, the average water consumption (520.78 mm) and local average rainfall (548.40 mm) were comparable. This showed that the supplement and consumption of soil water in forest land were basically the same. The results also showed that controlling the growth of jujube trees can regulate the water consumption of jujube forest land. It was proved that pruning intensity adopted in the experiment conformed to the local rainfall conditions and cold be used as a reference for the control index of water-saving pruning. Jujube trees growed normally depending on natural rainfall in limited growth space, and the experiment did not impact the jujube yield. Compared with the conventional dwarf densely planted mountain jujube trees, the biological water use efficiency and yield water use efficiency of the tested jujube trees are improved, and the higher the water use efficiency, the more economical the water use of the jujube trees. Through these, we found a way to increase the water use efficiency which is significantly important to relieve the soil desiccation in the deep soil.
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