解婷婷,单立山,苏培玺,赵文智.关键生育期不同灌溉量对甜高粱产量、品质及水分利用效率的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):51~57
关键生育期不同灌溉量对甜高粱产量、品质及水分利用效率的影响
Effects of different irrigation quantities at key growth stages on yield, quality and water use efficiency of sweet sorghum
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.07
中文关键词:  甜高粱  灌溉量  生育期  产量  可溶性糖  乙醇产量  水分利用效率
英文关键词:sweet sorghum  irrigation amount  biomass yield  soluble sugar content  ethanol yield  water use efficiency
基金项目:甘肃农业大学学科建设基金项目(GAU-XKJS-2018-108,GAU-XKJS-2018-104);国家自然科学基金(31560135)
作者单位
解婷婷 College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
单立山 College of Forestry, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
苏培玺 Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Ecological and Environmental Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
赵文智 Linze Inland River Basin Research Station/Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Northwest Ecological and Environmental Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China 
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中文摘要:
      在甘肃河西走廊荒漠绿洲区甜高粱总灌水量不变的前提下,以每次灌水量相同为对照,设拔节期~孕穗期增加20%灌水量和开花期~成熟期减少20%灌水量、拔节期~孕穗期增加40%灌水量和开花期~成熟期减少40%灌水量两个处理,研究关键生育期不同灌溉处理对甜高粱生长特性、生物产量、品质和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:拔节期~孕穗期增加灌水量和开花期~成熟期减少灌水量,甜高粱的株高和茎秆直径均有所升高,且茎秆直径显著提高;同时也显著提高了甜高粱的茎秆和地上生物产量,且拔节期~孕穗期每次灌水1 050 m3·hm-2和开花期~成熟期每次灌水450 m3·hm-2(拔节期~孕穗期增加40%,开花期~成熟期减少40%灌水量)处理下最高,分别为72.89 t·hm-2和89.04 t·hm-2。 甜高粱的糖分产量和乙醇产量也有所提高,拔节期~孕穗期每次灌水1 050 m3·hm-2和开花期~成熟期每次灌水450 m3·hm-2处理下也最高,其糖分产量为12.47 t·hm-2,乙醇产量为6 842.47 L·hm-2;水分利用效率在拔节期~孕穗期增加灌水量和开花期~成熟期减少灌水量处理下也显著提高。这说明在总灌水量不变的情况下,拔节期~孕穗期增大灌溉量40%,开花期~成熟期减少灌溉量40%有利于甜高粱生物产量和品质的提高,同时也实现了水分的高效利用。
英文摘要:
      By fixing the same amount of total irrigation for sweet sorghum throughout growth season in desert oasis region of Hexi corridor, with equal amount of water during every irrigation (CK) as control, two treatments including 1) increasing 20% of water in jointing stage-flagging stage and decreasing 20% of water in flowering-maturing stage, 2) increasing 40% of water in jointing stage-flagging stage and decreasing 40% of water in flowering-maturing stage, were set up. We studied the effect of variation in the irrigation quantity in key growth stages on the growth parameters, yield, quality, and water use efficiency. The aim was to provide the best water saving irrigation technology, which could be beneficial for increasing productivity and water use of sweet sorghum in the arid region. The results showed that compared with CK, the plant height and stem diameter were all increased and the stem diameter was significantly enhanced by increasing irrigation amount in jointing-booting stage and flowering-maturing stage. The stem and aboveground biomass yield were also significantly enhanced under regulated deficit irrigation, and reached the highest values of 72.89 t·hm-2and 89.04 t·hm-2, respectively, with 1 050 m3·hm-2 of irrigation water each time in jointing-booting stage and 450 m3·hm-2 of irrigation amount each time in flowering-maturing stage; The sugar yield and ethanol yield also achieved the highest in this treatment with the value of 12.47 t·hm-2 and 6 842.47 L·hm-2, respectively. Meanwhile, water use efficiency was increased with increasing irrigation amount in jointing stage-flagging stage and decreasing irrigation amount in flowering-maturing stage. This showed combination of increasing irrigation water by 40% in jointing stage-flagging stage and decreasing irrigation water by 40% in flowering-maturing stage enhanced biomass yield and quality of sweet sorghum without increasing total irrigation water usage, it also improved water use efficiency.
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