李志鹏,王俊,商雨晴,张少宏.填闲作物腐解过程及其对后茬冬小麦产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):75~82
填闲作物腐解过程及其对后茬冬小麦产量的影响
Decomposition of cover crop residues in soils and its effects on winter wheat yield
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.10
中文关键词:  填闲作物  腐解  冬小麦  产量
英文关键词:cover crops  decomposition  winter wheat  yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31570440, 31270484)
作者单位
李志鹏 College of Urban and Environment science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, ChinaShaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, China 
王俊 College of Urban and Environment science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, ChinaShaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, China 
商雨晴 College of Urban and Environment science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, ChinaShaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, China 
张少宏 College of Urban and Environment science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, ChinaShaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying Capacity, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710127, China 
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中文摘要:
      研究了渭北旱塬地区不同填闲作物(长武怀豆(S)、黑麦草(R)及两者1∶1混合(M))翻压和氮肥水平(0、60、120 kg N·hm-2)双因素处理下,填闲作物的腐解规律、碳氮释放动态及对后茬冬小麦产量的影响,并对腐解速率与Olsen模型进行了拟合。结果表明:各填闲作物翻压后腐解规律及碳氮释放特征均表现为“前期快-中期慢-后期加快”,填闲作物腐解规律符合Olsen模型,在第276天各处理累积腐解率均达70%以上。在第0~35天,同一施氮处理下,累积腐解率和腐解速率均表现为S>M>R(P<0.05);第35天,S、M和R各处理干物质累积腐解率分别达到61.9%、55.5%和47.5%;在0~35 d,施氮对S、M的腐解影响不显著,对R影响显著,35 d后氮肥效应逐渐减弱;填闲作物的腐解同时伴随其碳、氮的快速释放,在第21天,S、M和R碳氮残留率分别达到40%、50%和60%左右。平均来看,S的碳氮释放速率显著高于R,与M无显著差异。与裸地对照相比,翻压填闲作物能够显著提高后茬冬小麦产量,其籽粒产量增加10%~35% (P<0.05),其中翻压长武怀豆低氮处理和混合翻压低氮处理效果最佳。
英文摘要:
      The nylon mesh bag method was used to study the return of different cover crops (Changwu soyean (S), Ryegrass (R), and 1∶1 Mixture (M)) residue and nitrogen (N) fertilizer level (0, 60, and 120 kg N·hm-2) in Weibei dryland area under the two-factor treatments, the cover crop decomposition, the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen release, and the subsequent yield of winter wheat, and the decomposition rate were analyzed with the Olsen model. The results indicated that the decomposition and release characteristics of carbon (C) and N from each cover crop showed a characteristics of “pre-fast-intermediate slow-late acceleration”, and the decomposition of cover crops was following the Olsen model. On the 276th day, decomposition rates of all treatments were above 70%. In days of 0~35, under the same N treatment, the cumulative decomposition rate and the decomposition rate were in order of S>M>R (P<0.05). On the 35th day, the cumulative decomposition rate of dry matter in S, M, and R treatments reached 61.9%, 55.5%, and 47.5%, respectively. The application of N in 0~35 days enhanced the crop decomposition. The application of N to S and M did not impact the decomposition significantly but the effect on R was significant. After 35 days, the effect of N fertilizer was gradually weakened. The decomposition of the cover crops was accompanied by the rapid release of C and N, especially in the first 21 days, the residual ratio of C and N in S, M, and R reached 40%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. On average, the C-N release rate with treatment S was significantly higher than that with treatment R, but not with that of treatment M. Compared with the fallow control, the tumbling return of cover crops significantly increased the yield of subsequent winter wheat, and the grain yield increased by 10%~35% (P<0.05), among which SN1 and MN1 had the best treatment effect.
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