凌云鹤,周瑶,景兵,李春莲,肖恩时,王中华.盐胁迫对向日葵幼苗生长及生理特性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):139~145
盐胁迫对向日葵幼苗生长及生理特性的影响
Effects of salt stress on growth and physiological characteristics of sunflower at seedling stage
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.19
中文关键词:  银叶向日葵  盐胁迫  生长  光合特性  生理特性
英文关键词:silver leaf sunflower  salt stress  growth  photosynthetic characteristics  salt tolerance physiological characteristics
基金项目:国家特色油料产业技术体系杨凌综合试验站项目 (CARS-14-2-21);国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(31601335);中央高校基本科研业务费(2452016012)
作者单位
凌云鹤 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
周瑶 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
景兵 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
李春莲 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
肖恩时 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
王中华 College of AgricultureNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100China 
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中文摘要:
      以银叶向日葵ARG1807(Wt)为供试材料,陕葵2号的保持系(HA)和恢复系(HL)为对照材料,利用250 mmol·L-1 NaCl溶液进行盐胁迫处理7 d,分析供试材料与对照材料盐胁迫前后的形态变化以及叶片中的叶绿素、脯氨酸、丙二醛含量及SOD活性等生理指标差异,探究银叶向日葵耐盐的形态和生理基础。结果表明:(1)Wt的株高、叶面积增量以及根、茎、叶生物量分别比未进行NaCl胁迫处理植株(对照,CK)减少24.53%、38.21%、2.59%、5.50%、3.42%,其变化幅度小于HA和HL。(2) 在盐胁迫处理下,各向日葵品种的胞间二氧化碳浓度(Ci)均显著下降,而气孔限制值(Ls)显著上升,说明HA、HL与Wt净光合速率降低主要是由于气孔因素。(3)在盐胁迫下,3个向日葵品种叶片的脯氨酸含量(Pro)、丙二醛含量(MDA)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活性以及过氧化氢酶活性(CAT)均发生了显著变化,其中,Wt的脯氨酸含量、SOD活性、POD活性以及CAT活性分别比CK增加279.94%、65.09%、211.11%和55.91%,高于HA 和HL,而MDA含量比CK增加231.10%,低于HA。(4)随着时间的推移,3个向日葵品种叶片失水速率均显著上升,其中,Wt的失水速率一直低于HA、HL。在失水150 min时,HA失水速率最高,达84%,Wt叶片失水最慢,失水速率为69%,说明Wt在保水能力方面具有显著优势。(5)观察向日葵叶片表型发现:Wt的叶片表皮毛长度长,密度明显多于HA和HL,推测这可能是Wt保水性强于HA和HL的原因。分析表明:在盐逆境下,形态指标和生理指标,均为银叶向日葵表现最佳,优势突出,表明其在盐逆境下具有更强的适应能力。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the morphological and physiological bases in its salt tolerance, a silver leaf sunflower ARG1807(Wt)was used as the test materialand, two other oil sunflower inbred lines, HA and HL, were used as the control materials.Salt stress treatment was carried out with 250 mmol·L-1 of NaCl solution for 7 days. The morphological changes before and after salt stress, as well as the differences in physiological indexes including levels of chlorophyll, proline, malondialdehyde content and SOD activity in leaves were measured. The results showed that: (1) It was noticed that plant height, leaf area, and biomasses of root, stem, and leaf of Wt after salt stress were lower than those of the HA and HL by 24.53%, 38.21%, 2.59%, 5.50%, and 3.42%, respectively.(2) It was further found that under salt stress, the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) of each sunflower was decreased significantly, while limiting value of stomata (Ls) elevated significantly, indicating that the decrease in photosynthetic rate of HA,HL and Wt sunflowers were mainly due to stomatal factors.(3)The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT),the contents of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in three sunflower varieties were significantly changed after salt stress. Among them, the proline content, SOD activity, POD activity and CAT activity of Wt were increased by 279.94%, 65.09%, 211.111% and 55.91%,respectively, higher than those increased in the HA and HL, whereas the MDA content increased by 231.10% after salt treatment, lower than that increased in HA and HL. (4) With time going, the water loss rate in leaves of the three sunflower varieties increased significantly. Among them, the water loss rate of Wt is always lower than that of HA and HL. At 150 min, water loss rate in HA and Wt was the highest and the lowest, reaching levels of 84% and 69%, respectively, implying that Wt maybe more advantageous in water retention. (5) Through the observations on phenotypes of sunflower leaves, it was worth mentioning that the length and density of trichome of Wt leaves were richer than those of HA and HL. It is reasonable to speculate that this may be the reason why the water retention of Wt was stronger than that of HA and HL. Taken together, our analyses showed that in terms of both morphological and physiological indicators under salt stress, silver leaf sunflower exhibited good performance and prominent superiority. In short, silver leaf sunflower has an ultimate ability to adapt against salt.
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