孙小花,胡新元,陆立银,谢奎忠,张武.黄土高原马铃薯不同连作年限土壤理化性质及微生物特性[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):184~192
黄土高原马铃薯不同连作年限土壤理化性质及微生物特性
Soil physical and chemical properties and microbial characteristics of potato in different continuous cropping years on the Loess Plateau
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.25
中文关键词:  马铃薯  连作年限  土壤理化性质  土壤微生物  黄土高原
英文关键词:potato  continuous cropping years  physicochemical properties  soil microorganisms  Loess Plateau
基金项目:国家自然基金地区科学基金项目(31560172);甘肃省农业科学院青年基金项目(2016GAAS40);甘肃省农业科学院科技支撑计划项目(2016GAAS03)
作者单位
孙小花 Potato Research Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730070 China 
胡新元 Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070,China 
陆立银 Potato Research Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730070 China 
谢奎忠 Potato Research Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730070 China 
张武 Potato Research Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730070 China 
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中文摘要:
      以黄土高原旱作区马铃薯不同连作年限土壤为研究对象,采用空间代替时间序列方法,对撂荒(CK1)、小麦/豌豆/马铃薯轮作(CK2)、连作2 a、连作4 a和连作6 a等不同连作年限的土壤容重、结构分维、总有机碳、酶活性与微生物数量及变化规律进行研究。结果表明:(1)不同处理土壤容重差异显著,连作6 a土壤容重最小;(2)连作可以改变土壤中不同粒级团聚体的比例,各处理中>4 mm粒径的土壤含量最高;(3)马铃薯长期连作显著降低土壤有机碳含量,连作6 a土壤总有机碳含量较撂荒降低14.27%; (4)马铃薯主要生育期内土壤转化酶、过氧化氢酶变化动态呈“S”型曲线,脲酶呈“M”型变化趋势,3种酶活性与土壤肥力因子均呈极显著正相关,与土壤容重呈极显著负相关;(5)细菌是连作土壤中优势菌,真菌和放线菌也占一定比重;细菌、真菌和放线菌数量在0~10 cm土层显著高于10~20 cm土层;马铃薯长期连作显著降低土壤微生物数量,群落结构随连作年限明显改变。
英文摘要:
      In this paper,the soil of different continuous potato cropping years in the dry farming area of the Loess Plateau was studied by using space replacing time series method with the treatments including CK1, wheat/bean/horse rotation (CK2), continuous cropping for 2 years,continuous cropping for 4 years, and continuous cropping for 6 years. Soil bulk density and structure of different continuous cropping years were carried out by field sampling and laboratory analysis. The fractal dimension, total organic carbon, enzyme activity, and microbial number were studied. The results were as follows: (1) There were significant differences in soil bulk density among different treatments, and the soil bulk density of 6 years continuous cropping was the least. (2) Continuous cropping could change the proportion of aggregates different grain sizes in soil,and the content of soil grains > 4 mm was the highest in each treatment. (3) The long-term continuous potato cropping significantly reduced the soil organic carbon content and the soil total organic carbon. The 6-yrs cropping reduced total soil organic carbon by 14.27%. (4) The changes of soil invertase and catalase in the main growth period of potato showed “S” curve variation and the urease showed a “M”type trend. The activities of the 3 enzymes were significantly positively correlated with soil fertility factors, and negatively with the soil bulk density. (5) The bacteria in the soil were the dominant microorganism. Fungi and actinomycetes also accounted for a certain proportion; the number of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in the 0~10 cm soil layer was significantly higher than that of 10~20 cm soil layer, and the long-term continuous cropping of potato significantly decreased the soil microbial population, and changed the community structure.
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