吴佳瑞,康建宏,吴娜,禄兴丽,慕宇,孙建波.覆膜对宁南山区马铃薯光合特性和产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):208~214
覆膜对宁南山区马铃薯光合特性和产量的影响
Effects of film mulching on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of potato in hilly area of Southern Ningxia
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.28
中文关键词:  覆膜  马铃薯  光合特性  产量  黑膜  白膜
英文关键词:film mulching  potato  photosynthetic fluorescence parameters  yield  black film  white film
基金项目:“十二五”国家支撑计划(2015BAD22B01);国家自然科学基金(31660376);中国气象局旱区特色农业气象灾害监测预警与风险管理重点实验室开放研究项目(CAMF-201702)
作者单位
吴佳瑞 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
康建宏 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
吴娜 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
禄兴丽 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
慕宇 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
孙建波 College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchua, Ningxia 750021 
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中文摘要:
      以青薯9号原种为材料,采用大田单因素随机区组设计,以不覆膜为对照,研究了覆盖黑膜和白膜对马铃薯光合特性、荧光参数、干物质积累以及产量的影响。结果表明:与不覆膜相比,覆膜条件下马铃薯净光合速率提高0.4~3.0个百分点,气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度平均增加31.45%和6.58%,Fv/Fm、Fv/Fo、PI分别提高了2.47%、12.18%、20.93%;蒸腾速率在马铃薯生育前期覆膜比不覆膜降低20.82%,而后期却比对照增加8.55%,热耗散量子比率Fo/Fm覆膜较不覆膜处理降低7.11%,差异达显著水平;覆膜比不覆膜处理条件下马铃薯干物质积累量增加0.25~1.86个百分点,大薯率和中薯率分别增加33.78%,15.73%,每公顷产量增加43.08%,其中黑膜处理的各项指标优于白膜,黑膜比白膜和不覆膜增产16.86%、54.20%,差异达显著水平。因此,覆膜处理可以显著提高马铃薯的光合性能、荧光参数和产量,有效缓解干旱等逆境引起的马铃薯的衰老,减轻干旱对马铃薯的危害。在宁南山区,马铃薯采用黑色地膜覆盖栽培技术具有延缓叶片衰老和增加产量的作用。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the effects of different mulching materials on the photosynthetic characteristics and yield of potato in dry lands of Ningxia, the study used Qingshu No.9 as the experimental material with single-factor randomized block field experiment. In contrast to no coverage, the effects of black and white film covering on photosynthetic characteristics, fluorescence parameters, dry matter accumulation, and yield of potato were investigated.The results showed thatcovered conditionsincreased the net photosynthetic rate of potato by 0.4%~3.0%, the stomatal conductance and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased by an average of 31.45% and 6.58%, and the Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, and PI significantly increased by 2.47%, 12.18%, and 20.93%, respectively, compared with the control. Under the condition of film covering, the transpiration rate was significantly reduced by 20.82% in the pre-harvest potato, and increased by 8.55% in the later period over the control. The heat dissipation quantum ratio (Fo/Fm) was 7.11%lower than that of the control. Compared with the non-mulching treatment, the dry matter accumulation of potato increased by 0.25%~1.86%, the rate of large and medium potato increased by 33.78%, 15.73%, and the yield per hectare increased by 43.08% under the condition of film mulching.Among them, the black film treatment index was better than the white film, and the yield of the black film was significantly higher than that of the white film and the control by 16.86% and 54.20%, respectively.Therefore, the film treatment can significantly improve the photosynthetic performance, fluorescence parameters, and yield of potato, effectively alleviate the potato senescence caused by adversity such as drought, thus reducing the harm of drought to potato. In the hilly area of southern Ningxia, the use of black mulching techniques for potato cultivation can delay leaf senescence and increase yield.
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