秦萍,张俊华,孙兆军,贾萍萍.降碱抑盐改良剂对重度盐化碱土的改良效果[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):269~275
降碱抑盐改良剂对重度盐化碱土的改良效果
Effect of alkali reducing and salt inhibiting amendments on saline-alkali soil
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.36
中文关键词:  盐化碱土  改良剂  降碱抑盐  土壤理化性状  产量
英文关键词:saline alkali soil  soil amendment  reducing alkali and inhibiting salt  physiochemical proprieties  yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41561078);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC02B04)
作者单位
秦萍 Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China Ningxia Key Laboratory of Resource Assessment and Environment Regulation in Arid Region, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
张俊华 Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China Ningxia Key Laboratory of Resource Assessment and Environment Regulation in Arid Region, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
孙兆军 Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China Ningxia Key Laboratory of Resource Assessment and Environment Regulation in Arid Region, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
贾萍萍 College of Resources and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
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中文摘要:
      以宁夏银北重度盐化碱土为研究对象,连续4 a监测脱硫石膏、糠醛渣、醋糟和菌肥单独或配合施用对土壤pH值、全盐和其他理化性状的改良效果及对水稻生长指标的影响。结果表明:(1)改良4年间T2(单施脱硫石膏)或各改良剂配合施用的处理(T3~T6)在0~20 cm土层pH值比T1(CK,不施用改良剂)降低,其中T5(脱硫石膏+糠醛渣+醋糟+菌肥)相对降幅最大,T6(脱硫石膏+菌肥)降幅最小,T3(脱硫石膏+糠醛渣+菌肥)和T4(脱硫石膏+醋糟+菌肥)差异较小;土壤碱化度和电导率变化趋势与pH值相似,但降幅明显大于pH值降幅。(2)4年间T2~T6处理表层土壤有机质含量比T1分别平均增加了1.30、3.97、4.03、5.16 g·kg-1和2.15 g·kg-1;不同处理土壤速效养分含量的变化趋势与有机质相似,但增幅均大于有机质。(3)4年间T2处理水稻保苗率显著高于T1,但普遍低于改良剂配合施用的处理,T5保苗率最高,T4保苗率略优于T3;改良剂配合施用对株高提升效果不及保苗率明显;各改良剂均能提高作物穗长、每穗粒数和结实率,降低空秕数;T2~T6处理4年产量平均值分别比对照增加77.92%、118.48%、128.93%、158.10%和102.13%,T4纯收入最高,其次为T5。整体来讲,施用脱硫石膏+糠醛渣+醋糟可以显著降低土壤pH值、碱化度和EC、提高土壤有机质和养分含量,实现土壤降碱抑盐、作物增产增收的目的。
英文摘要:
      Saline and alkaline soils are usually observed in arid and semi-arid regions as well as in areas with poor drainage. Severe saline-alkali soil in the north of Yinchuan in Ningxia selected as the study object. Changes in soil pH, total salinity, physiochemical properties of severe saline-alkali soil, effect of growth parameters of rice after the application of flue gas desulfurization, furfural residue, vinegar residue, and bacterial manure were studied for four consecutive years. The results showed that: (1) Soil pH value of T2 (single application of flue gas desulphurization gypsum) and T3-T6 (combined application of amendments) in 0~20 cm layer significantly decreased than that of T1 (check), and the decreasing amplitude of T5 (flue gas desulfurization + furfural residue + vinegar residue + bacterial manure) was the biggest; T6 (flue gas desulfurization + bacterial manure) decreased the pH least; the pH difference of T3 (flue gas desulfurization + furfural residue + bacterial manure) and T4 (flue gas desulfurization + vinegar residue + bacterial manure) were small. The variation tendency of ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and EC (electric conductivity) were in the same trend as the pH, and their decrease was greater than pH. (2) The organic matter in treatments of T2~T6 increased by 1.30, 3.97, 4.03, 5.16 g·kg-1 and 2.15 g·kg-1 over that with T1’s. The variation tendencies of alkali-hydrolyzable, available P, and available K were similar to the organic matter in four years, but the increasing amplitudes were bigger than organic matter. (3) Seedling preservation rate of T2 was higher than that with T1, but lower than the treatments of combined amendments. Seedling preservation rate of T5 reached the highest, and seedling preservation rate of T4 was slightly higher than that with T3’s. Lifting effect on plant heights were less than seedling preservation rates with combined amendments. Every amendment increased the spike length, number of grain per spike, setting percentage and decreased the empty chaff number of rice. The average yields of T2~T6 increased by 77.92%, 118.48%, 128.93%, 158.10%, and 102.13% than that with T1’s in four years. The net income of T4 was the highest among treatments followed by T5. On the whole, flue gas desulfurization + furfural residue + vinegar residue + bacterial manure decreased pH, ESP, EC of soil, increased the organic matter and nutrients, and achieved a significant increase in crop yield and income.
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