王慧,李永山,董鹏,孙泰森.糜子对铁矿复垦生土施肥的生物学响应[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(4):276~283
糜子对铁矿复垦生土施肥的生物学响应
Physiological effect of fertilizer on the growth and yield of proso in the reclamation of iron mining area
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.04.37
中文关键词:  复垦区生土  施肥;糜子;生长;土壤酶;土壤微生物
英文关键词:reclaimed land  fertilization  proso  growth  soil enzyme  soil microorganism
基金项目:山西省农业科学院博士研究基金(YBSJJ1802);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200102)
作者单位
王慧 Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
李永山 Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
董鹏 Institute of Cotton, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China
Yuncheng Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China 
孙泰森 College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, China 
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中文摘要:
      以襄汾溃坝区复垦生土为栽培基质,采用盆栽试验的方法,研究了施肥对糜子生长及生理生态效应的影响。结果表明:在施钾的基础上施用N、P、NP及有机肥均有利于糜子的生长,表现为株高分别增加了6.1%、42.0%、52.7%、45.1%,叶面积分别增加了197.6%、207.7%、261.6%、232.5%,地上部干重分别增加了46.3%、159.1%、186.6%、148.2%,根重分别增加了13.8%、65.9%、75.7%、67.1%,总根长分别增加了5.0%、68.4%、99.8%、91.6%,根系总吸收面积分别增加了24.9%、50.8%、68.3%、62.2%,活性吸收面积分别增加了46.9%、57.7%、96.9%、58.9%。糜子的旗叶净光合速率、叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、根系超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量等各项生理指标与糜子的生长状况表现出高度的一致性。并最终表现为施用各种肥料均有利于糜子产量的提高,施用N、P、NP及有机肥分别比对照增产80.6%、200.1%、266.8%、230.6%。比较不同处理的增产效果可以发现,在本试验条件下,施磷的效果好于氮,磷是所用生土肥力形成的首要因素,也是糜子产量形成的限制因子。磷、氮、钾三要素之间表现出明显的正交互效应。单施有机肥,在糜子生长前期(拔节期),对糜子的生长有明显的促进作用,但在后期(抽穗期)因缺氮而表现出效果不及其他处理。糜子根际土壤磷酸酶以及脲酶的活性与根系的生长状况表现为显著的正相关关系,表明发达的根系可以促使根际微生物群落的迅速生长和繁殖,并进而提高了根际土壤酶的活性,使得根际原来的生土不断向着熟化的方向发展。在施用一定肥料的前提条件下,矿区复垦生土地上种植糜子,当年便可获得较为正常的产量,并获得较好的经济效益,是当地可选的先锋杂粮作物之一。
英文摘要:
      The effects of fertilization on the growth and physiological and ecological responses on proso were studied by pot experiment with the cultivated soil in Xiangfen dam-break area. The results showed that the applications of nitrogen (NK), phosphorus (PK), combination of N and P (NPK), and organic fertilizers with potassium were beneficial to the growth of proso. Plant height increased by 6.1%, 42.0%, 52.7%, and 45.1%; leaf area increased by 197.6%, 207.7%, 261.6%, and 232.5%; dry weight of shoot increased by 46.3%, 159.1%, 186.6%, and 148.2%; root weight increased by 13.8%, 65.9%, 75.7%, and 67.1%, respectively. Total root length increased by 5.0%, 68.4%, 99.8%, and 91.6%; total root absorption area increased by 24.9%, 50.8%, 68.3%, and 62.2%, active absorption area increased by 46.9%, 57.7%, 96.9%, and 58.9%, respectively. The physiological indexes such as net light rate, chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, root superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were highly consistent with the growth condition of the proso. Compared with the control, the application of NK fertilizer, PK fertilizer, NPK, and organic fertilizers increased the yield by 80.6%, 200.1%, 266.8%, and 230.6%, respectively. The applications of all kinds of fertilizers were beneficial to the increase of proso yield. Among all treatments, the effect of PK was better than that of NK, P was the primary factor of fertility formation of raw soil used in this experiment, and it was also the limiting factor of the formation of proso yield. Phosphorus, N, and potassium showed significant positive additive effects. The application of organic fertilizer alone could promote the growth of the proso in the early stage of growth (jointing stage), but at the late stage (heading stage), the effect was not as good as that of other treatments because of N deficiency. The activities of phosphatase and urease in rhizosphere soil were positively correlated with the growth of root system, which indicated that the developed root system could promote the rapid growth and reproduction of rhizosphere microbial community. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of rhizosphere soil was improved, which made the original rhizosphere soil develop to the maturation. Under the precondition of applying certain fertilizer, planting proso in the reclaimed land in the mining area obtained relatively normal yield and good economic benefit in that year, and it is one of the local crops which can be selected as pioneer grain.
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