王风姣,王振华,李文昊.灌水量及可降解膜覆盖对滴灌玉米土壤呼吸及产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):1~8
灌水量及可降解膜覆盖对滴灌玉米土壤呼吸及产量的影响
Effects of irrigation amount and degradable membrane mulching on soil respiration and yield of drip-irrigated corn
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.01
中文关键词:  玉米  滴灌  灌水量  可降解膜  土壤呼吸  产量
英文关键词:corn  drip irrigation  irrigation amount  degradable membrane  soil respiration  yield
基金项目:中国工程院院士咨询研究项目(2018-XY-36);兵团节水灌溉试验计划项目(DTJSSY-201808)
作者单位
王风姣 College of Water & Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production & Construction Group, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
王振华 College of Water & Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production & Construction Group, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
李文昊 College of Water & Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China
Key Laboratory of Modern Water-Saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production & Construction Group, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China 
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中文摘要:
      以小区试验,设置3个灌水水平(W1:4 625 m3·hm-2,W2:5 625 m3hm-2,W3:6 625 m3·hm-2),2种可降解膜(M1:诱导期60 d,M2:诱导期:80 d)和普通塑料地膜(M3),研究不同处理对滴灌玉米土壤呼吸速率及其影响因子、产量等指标的影响。结果表明:各处理土壤呼吸速率日变化呈单峰型曲线,在14∶00出现最高值;土壤呼吸速率自苗期至成熟期呈先升高后降低的变化趋势,抽雄期W2M3取得最大值7.89 μmol·m-2·s-1。土壤呼吸速率与土壤温度、气温均呈显著正相关关系,与土壤含水率无相关关系。土壤温度敏感系数(Q10)变化范围1.584~2.034,玉米生育期内土壤呼吸总量变化范围是17.75~23.44 t·hm-2,籽粒产量变化范围是11.60~12.81 t·hm-2。W2M3的Q10为2.034、土壤呼吸总量为23.44 t·hm-2、产量为12.81 t·hm-2、收益为6 815元·hm-2,均达到最大值;但其iWUE为2.28 kg·m-3、经济-环境效益为1.83 kg·kg-1,均未达到最大值。iWUE在W1M2取得最大值为2.51 kg·m-3,W2M2经济-环境效益最优为1.42 kg·kg-1。通过综合分析土壤呼吸总量、籽粒产量、经济—环境效益值、收益、iWUE的关系模型,认为最优灌水量为5 625 m3·hm-2,诱导期为80 d。
英文摘要:
      In order to investigate the relationship between irrigation amount and degradable membrane on the dynamic changes of soil respiration in drip irrigation field and its influencing factors and yield, a suitable degradable membrane and irrigation amount were sought. In the plot test, three irrigation levels were set as W1: 4 625 m3·hm-2, W2: 5 625 m3·hm-2 and W3: 6 625 m3·hm-2, and two degradable membranes as M1: induction period of 60 d, M2: induction period of 80d and ordinary plastic mulch (M3). We studied the effects of different treatments on soil respiration rate, its influencing factors, yield, etc. The results showed that the daily change of soil respiration rate showed an unimodal change, and the highest value appeared at 14:00. The soil respiration rate increased first from the seedling stage to the mature stage, and the maximum value of the W2M3 was 7.89 μmol·m-2·s-1. There was a significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperature and air temperature, and no correlation with soil moisture content. The soil temperature sensitivity coefficient Q10 varied from 1.584 to 2.034. The soil respiration total range during the maize growth period ranged from 17.75 to 23.44 t·hm-2, and the grain yield ranged from 11.60 to 12.81 t·hm-2. The Q10 of W2M3 was 2.034, the total amount of soil respiration was 23.44 t·hm-2, the yield was 12.81 t·hm-2, and the economic return was 6 815 yuan·hm-2, which both reached the maximum values; but iWUE was at 2.28 kg·m-3 and was the maximum and the economic-environmental benefit was 1.83 kg·kg-1, which was not optimal. The maximum value of iWUE in W1M2 was 2.51 kg·m-3, and the economic-environmental benefit of W2M2 was optimally at 1.42 kg·kg-1. Through comprehensive analysis of soil respiration total, grain yield, economic-environmental benefit value, income, iWUE relationship model, the optimal irrigation amount was 5 625 m3·hm-2, and the induction period was 80 d.
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