王文,翟汝伟,刘平,刘学军,鲍子云.盐池县扬黄灌区玉米滴灌制度的制定[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):22~26
盐池县扬黄灌区玉米滴灌制度的制定
The formulation of drip irrigation system for corn in Yanghuang pumping irrigation area of Yanchi County
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.04
中文关键词:  玉米  滴灌制度  土壤含水量  水分利用效率  扬黄灌区
英文关键词:maize  drip irrigation system  soil moisture content  water use efficiency  Yanghuang pumping irrigation area
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目“黄土高原扬黄灌区(宁夏)增粮增效技术研究与示范”(2015BAD22B05)
作者单位
王文 Ningxia Hydraulic Research InstituteYinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
翟汝伟 Ningxia Hydraulic Research InstituteYinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
刘平 Ningxia Hydraulic Research InstituteYinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
刘学军 Ningxia Hydraulic Research InstituteYinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
鲍子云 Ningxia Hydraulic Research InstituteYinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了提高宁夏扬黄灌区水资源利用效率,促进玉米滴灌技术推广应用,在位于西北黄土高原的宁夏盐池县扬黄灌区开展了玉米滴灌制度研究。试验设计了单因素施肥水平2 131~3 847 m3·hm-2共9个梯度灌水总额,灌水次数10~11次,单次灌水定额150~450 m3·hm-2。通过对玉米生育期灌水量、土壤含水量、产量等指标的监测,分析了玉米生育期土壤含水量变化规律、各生育阶段耗水量强度、不同灌水定额下土壤水蓄存情况、年灌水量与产量的关系。结果显示:灌水前后0~40 cm土壤含水量有显著差异,40~100 cm差异不显著;单次灌水定额为225~375 m3·hm-2时灌溉水在土壤中得到有效蓄存,而单次灌水定额为450 m3·hm-2时,灌溉水有深层渗漏和侧渗现象。灌水量与玉米籽粒、青贮产量均呈正相关,R2分别为0.75和0.82,,在总灌水量为3 402、3 628 m3·hm-2和3 847 m3·hm-2时,产量分别为14 062、11 717、12 889 kg·hm-2,籽粒和青贮产量均随灌水量增加而减少,灌溉水生产效率分别为2.46、2.01、2.14 kg·m-3;灌浆期、抽雄期、拔节期是玉米生长的关键需水期,灌水定额为300~375 m3·hm-2;盐池县扬黄灌区适宜滴灌次数10~11次,灌水总额3 405~3 660 m3·hm-2
英文摘要:
      In order to improve the water use efficiency in Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area and promote the application of drip irrigation technology in corn production, a study on corn drip irrigation system was carried out in the Yanghuang pumping irrigation area of Yanchi County, Ningxia. The experiment included 9 gradient irrigation treatments of 2 131~3 847 m3·hm-2 with single factor fertilization level, the number of irrigation was 10 times, and the irrigation quota was 150~450 m3·hm-2. Through monitoring the amount of water, soil moisture content, maize yield, and the changes of soil water content during the growth period of maize, the water consumption intensity at each growth stage, the soil water storage under different irrigation quotas and the annual irrigation amount were analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant difference in soil moisture content between 0~40 cm before and after irrigation, and there was no difference in 40~100 cm layer. There was significant water storage when the irrigation quota was 225~375 m3·hm-2; at 450 m3·hm-2, the irrigation water had deep and side leakage. The irrigation amount was positively correlated with grain and silage yield with R2 values of 0.75 and 0.82, respectively, and at 3 402, 3 628 and 3 847 m3·hm-2, the yield was 14 062, 11 717 and 12 889 kg·hm-2. The grain and silage yields decreased with increasing irrigation amount. The irrigation water production efficiency was 2.46, 2.01 and 2.14 kg·m-3, respectively. The filling period, the tasseling stage, and the jointing stage were key corn growth stages that required a water demand of 300~375 m3·hm-2. The optimum number of drip irrigation in Yanghuang pumping irrigation area of Yanchi County should be 10~11 times and the irrigation quota should be 3 405~3 660 m3·hm-2.
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