潘俊杰,付秋萍,阿布都卡依木·阿布力米提,马英杰.蕾期和花铃期不同灌水下限对滴灌棉花产量的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):27~32
蕾期和花铃期不同灌水下限对滴灌棉花产量的影响
Effects of irrigation limits at bud stage and flowering stage on yield of drip irrigation cotton
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.05
中文关键词:  灌水下限  棉花  滴灌  蕾期  花铃期  Logistic模型
英文关键词:lower limits of irrigation  cotton  drip irrigation  bud stage  flowering and boll stage  Logistic models
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区科技支疆项目(2016E02105);干旱区枣树节水调质技术及智能决策系统研发创新团队(XJEDU2017T004);新疆农业大学博士后经费项目
作者单位
潘俊杰 College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
付秋萍 College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
阿布都卡依木·阿布力米提 College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China
Beijing Unism Technologies, Inc., Beijing 10008, China 
马英杰 College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探究棉花生长关键时期灌溉预警线,2017年在新疆呼图壁县开展了蕾期和花铃期灌水下限分别为55%(仅蕾期)、65%和75%田间持水量(θf)及其不同组合的大田试验,研究了不同滴灌条件下棉花的生长及产量状况。结果表明:灌水下限的提升对株高和生物量有明显的促进作用,在蕾期灌水下限从55%θf增至75θf,棉花株高和生物量分别增加了0.18~0.19 cm·d-1和11.58~20.44 g;在花铃期灌水下限从65%θf增至75θf,棉花株高和生物量分别增加了0.04~0.10 cm·d-1和3.47~4.04 g;蕾期和花铃期灌水下限分别为65%θf和75%θf时单铃重和单株成铃数分别为5.58 g和7.79个·株-1,显著高于其他处理;蕾期和花铃期灌水下限均为75%θf时耗水量最大,为517.05 mm;蕾期和花铃期灌水下限分别为55%θf和65%θf时籽棉产量显著低于其他处理;蕾期和花铃期灌水下限分别为65%θf和75%θf时与均为75%θf时产量无显著性差异。综上,棉花蕾期和花铃期灌水下限分别为65%θf和75%θf为适宜的灌溉预警线。以播后天数为自变量,Logistic模型可以很好地模拟棉花的株高和生物量,以耗水量和株高为自变量预测棉花生物量变化情况的模型可为滴灌棉花灌水量及生长状况预测提供指导。
英文摘要:
      To explore the suitable lower limits of drip irrigation, a field experiments including the lower irrigation limits, which were 55% (bud stage only), 65% and 75% of field capacity and the different combination at bud stage and flowering stage was carried. The growth and yield of cotton under different drip irrigation conditions were studied. The results showed that the increase of irrigation water limit obviously promoted effect on plant height and biomass. With the increase in irrigation water limit, the plant height increased 0.18~0.19 cm·d-1 at bud stage and 0.04~0.10 cm·d-1 at flowering and boll stages, the biomass increased 11.58~20.44 g·plant-1 at bud stage and 3.47~4.04 g·plant-1 at flowering and boll stages. When the lower limits of irrigation was at 65% θf at bud stage and 75% θf at flowering and boll stages, the boll weight per plant was 5.58 g and the number of bolls per plant was 7.79, which was obviously higher than others; When the lower limits of irrigation was 75% θf at bud, flowering and boll stages, the water consumption was more than others at 517.05 mm. When the lower limits of irrigation was 55% θfat bud stage and 65% θf at flowering and boll stages, the yield of seed cotton was significantly lower than that of other treatments. There was no significant difference in yield between the treatments, which the lower limits of irrigation was 65% θf at bud stage and 75% θf at flowering and boll stages, and the treatment that the lower limits of irrigation was 75% of field capacity at bud stages and flowering and boll stages. Therefore, the best lower limits of irrigation was 65% θf at bud stage and 75% θf at flowering and boll stages. In regard to the number of days after sowing as independent variable, Logistic model can simulate cotton plant height and biomass very well, and then the water consumption was introduced, a model for predicting cotton biomass change with water consumption and plant height as independent variables was established. This study could provide guidance for the prediction of irrigation water limit and growth status of cotton drip irrigation in similar areas.
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