赵占营,楚光红,李思忠,章建新.栽培密度对高产大豆根系生长及花荚形成的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):62~69
栽培密度对高产大豆根系生长及花荚形成的影响
Effects of different densities on root growth and pod formation of high-yield soybean
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.10
中文关键词:  高产大豆  栽培密度  根系生长  花荚  产量
英文关键词:high-yield soybean  density  root system  flower and pod  yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31660367、31460333)
作者单位
赵占营 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
楚光红 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
李思忠 Institute of Economic Crops, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830091, China 
章建新 College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探明栽培密度对高产大豆根系生长和花荚形成的影响规律,田间试验设置21.0(D1)、30.0(D2)、48.0(D3)×104株·hm-2 3种栽培密度,研究了新大豆27号、新大豆8号在0~60 cm土层中根系生长、开花、结荚过程及产量的变化。结果表明,相对于D1,D2、D3密度下新大豆27号总根干重增加了23.68%、18.48%,总根长增加了9.33%、26.72%,新大豆8号总根干重增加了27.25%、19.71%,总根长增加了6.94%、30.80%,且增量以40~60 cm为主;增加至密度D3时,新大豆27号开花和结荚高峰出现时间较D1分别推迟了2、8 d,新大豆8号推迟了2、6 d,但二者单位面积的总花数、总荚数、总腔数和总粒数分别较D1提高了51.92%、10.29%、7.66%、23.05%和49.47%、31.91%、35.40%、16.11%;总花数与始荚期根干重、根长度呈正相关关系,新大豆27号R2值分别为0.8477*、0.9106*,新大豆8号R2值分别为0.7531、0.9993**;总腔数与始粒期根干重、根长度呈正相关关系,新大豆27号R2值分别为0.6954、0.9837**,新大豆8号R2值分别为0.7902*、0.9277*;且根长度与总花数、总腔数的关系比根干重更密切。合理密植显著提高大豆籽粒产量,是密植促进了大豆根系生长,增加了单位面积总根长和深层根量,进而增加了单位面积花数、荚数、腔数和粒数的结果。
英文摘要:
      In order to prove the rules planting density on the root growth and the formation of flower and pod of high-yield soybean, field experiments were conducted at three different densities, i.e., 21.0×104 plants·hm-2(D1), 30.0×104 plants·hm-2 (D2) and 48.0×104 plants·hm-2 (D3), to study the vertical distribution of root in 0~60 cm soil layer, process of blooming and podding, and yield for Xindadou 27 and Xindadou 8. The results showed that the total root dry weight of Xindadou 27 with density of D2 and D3 was increased by 23.68% and 18.48% respectively compared that with density of D1, the total root dry weight of Xindadou 8 with density of D2 and D3 was increased by 27.25% and 19.71%, respectively, compared that with density of D1, and the total root lenght was increased by 6.94% and 30.80%, respectively, with the increment being mainly 40~60 cm. When the density increased to D3, the occurrence time of flowering and pod setting peak of Xindadou 27 and Xindadou 8 were 2, 8, and 2, 6 days, respectively, but the total flower number, total pod number, total cavity number and total grain number per unit area were increased 51.92%, 10.29%, 7.66%, 23.05% and 49.47%, 31.91%, 35.40% and 16.11%, respectively, compared with D1. The total number of flowers were positively correlated with both root dry weight and root length at the beginning stage of podding, and in this stage, R2 values of Xindadou 27 were 0.8477* and 0.9106*, respectively, and R2 values of Xindadou 8 were 0.7531 and 0.9993**, respectively. The total number of cavities were positively correlated with the root dry weight and root length at the beginning stage of grain generation, and in this stage, R2 values of Xindadou 27 were 0.6954 and 0.9837**, respectively, and R2 values of Xindadou 8 were 0.7902* and 0.9277*, respectively, moreover, the relationship of root length with flowers and cavities was closer than that with root dry weight. Therefore, the reasonable close planting significantly increased yield of soybean grains, promoted the root growth of soybean, increased total root length and numbers of roots in deep soil layer per unit area, and thus increased the number of flowers, pods, cavities and grains per unit area.
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