王虎兵,曹红霞,郝舒雪,潘小燕.水肥耦合下温室番茄养分动态变化及与生物量和产量的关系[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):149~156
水肥耦合下温室番茄养分动态变化及与生物量和产量的关系
The relationship between dynamic change in nutrient contents and biomass and yield of tomato under coupled irrigation and fertilization in greenhouse
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.22
中文关键词:  温室番茄  水肥耦合  养分动态  干物质量  产量  肥料偏生产力
英文关键词:greenhouse tomato  irrigation and fertilization coupling  dynamic changes of nutrient content  dry matter  yield  partial factor productivity of fertilizer
基金项目:国家“863”项目(2013AA103004);陕西省水利科技计划项目(2014slkj-17);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2452016074)
作者单位
王虎兵 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
曹红霞 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
郝舒雪 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
潘小燕 College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      结合膜下滴灌技术,探究不同水肥耦合下温室番茄养分动态变化规律及其与生物量和产量的关系,为当地水肥管理提供理论依据。通过小区试验,灌水以2次灌水间隔期Φ20 cm标准蒸发皿的累计蒸发量E为基数,设置3个灌水量:1.0E(W1)、0.75E(W2)、0.5E(W3);设3个施肥水平(N-P2O5-K2O):320-160-320 kg·hm-2(F1),240-120-240 kg·hm-2(F2)和160-80-160 kg·hm-2(F3),共9个处理。结果表明:番茄总产量和干物质量受灌水和施肥影响显著,均随灌水量和施肥量增加而增大,高水W1处理较W3处理总产量和干物质量均平均增加16.5%,高肥F1处理较F3处理总产量和干物质量分别平均增加8.0%、9.6%。植株氮含量在1.81%~3.47%间变化,随生育期逐渐降低,磷含量在0.48%~0.78%呈“锯齿状”波动,钾含量在2.80%~4.79%间变化,随生育期先升高后降低。灌水施肥对植株氮、磷(定植后51、63 d)、钾含量影响显著,增加灌水施肥对植株氮、钾含量有明显提高,在高水W1下较低水W3处理植株氮、钾含量分别提高7.4%~20.0%、5.6%~25.7%,高肥F1水平较F3水平植株氮含量分别提高3.3%~20.8%、3.3%~26.4%。番茄植株氮、钾含量与干物质量呈显著负相关关系,与总产量呈显著正相关关系。灌水量越大,植株养分吸收效率和肥料偏生产力越大,养分利用效率越小;施肥量越大,氮利用效率越小。
英文摘要:
      This paper combined drip irrigation technology under mulch in order to explore the changes in nutrient dynamics of tomato plant and its influence on biomass and yield under different water and fertilizer regulation, which aimed to provide theoretical basis for optimum local water and fertilizer management. Through field experiments, the irrigation amount was established based on accumulative evaporation (E) of two irrigation intervals for a standard pan (20 cm). Water volumes were set as 1.0E (W1), 0.75E (W2) and 0.5E (W3) and fertilizer treatments of N-P2O5-K2O(F) were set as F1: 320-160-320 kg·hm-2, F2: 240-120-240 kg·hm-2, F3: 160-80-160 kg·hm-2. Nine treatments were included. The results showed that tomato yield and dry matter were significan tly affected by the irrigation and fertilization and positively correlated with increasing irrigation water and fertilizer.The high water treatment (W1) increased fruit yield and dry matter by 16.5% compared to low water treatment (W3). F1 increased yield and dry matter by 8% and 9.6%, respectively, over F3 treatment. The nitrogen (N) content of plant ranged between 1.81% and 3.47% and decreased with increasing the growth period, phosphorus (P) content showed "serration" volatility between 0.48% to 0.78%, and potassium (K) content increased first and then decreased ranging between 2.80% and 4.79% with growth period. Irrigation and fertilizer had a significant influence on N, P (51、63 d after transplanting) and K. The N and K contents increased with increasing irrigation and fertilization. In W1 treatment, N and K content increased by 7.4%~20.0% and 5.6%~25.7%, respectively, over W3 treatments. Comparing with F3, F1 increased N and K content by 3.3%~20.8% and 3.3%~26.4%, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between dry matter and plant N and K, and a significant positive correlation between yield and plant N and K in growth stage. When irrigation amount was high, the NUE was smaller, but the UPE and the PFP of plant nutrients were higher. The high fertilizer amount resulted in small NUE.
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