魏彬萌,李忠徽,王益权.渭北果园土壤紧实化改良效果初探[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):165~170
渭北果园土壤紧实化改良效果初探
Preliminary study on improvement of soil compaction in Weibei apple orchard
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.24
中文关键词:  土壤紧实化  土壤改良  填充物料  土壤含水率  CO2释放通量  渭北苹果园
英文关键词:soil compaction  soil amelioration  filling material  soil moisture content  CO2 release flux  Weibei apple orchard
基金项目:
作者单位
魏彬萌 Institute of Land Engineering and Technology, Shaanxi Provincial Land EngineeringConstruction Group Co., Ltd.,Xi’an, Shaanxi 710075, China
Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co., Ltd.,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710075, China
Key Laboratory of Degraded and Unused Land Consolidation Engineering, the Ministry of Land and Resources, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710075, China 
李忠徽 Shaanxi Hydrogeology Engineering Geology and Environment Geology Survey Center,Xi’an,Shaanxi 710054, China 
王益权 Institute of Land Engineering and Technology, Shaanxi Provincial Land EngineeringConstruction Group Co., Ltd.,Xi’an, Shaanxi 710075, China
Shaanxi Provincial Land Engineering Construction Group Co., Ltd.,Xi'an,Shaanxi 710075, China
Key Laboratory of Degraded and Unused Land Consolidation Engineering, the Ministry of Land and Resources, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710075, China 
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中文摘要:
      针对长期植果造成的渭北果园土壤内部存在的紧实化问题,本试验通过给果园土壤开“天窗”的方式,拟打破果园土壤内部存在的紧实化层,以期提高果园土壤水分利用效率和土壤内部气体交换。于果树萌芽期,选择土壤质量退化严重的>20 a苹果园3个作为研究对象,在长势相同的果树周围用直径10 cm的土钻打30 cm的深洞,并向深洞内分别填埋:蛭石(Z)、炉渣(L)、石灰+土(S)、蛭石+炉渣(ZL)、蛭石+石灰(ZS)。在果树生长的6—9月,分3次测定土壤含水率及土壤CO2释放通量。结果发现:(1) 6月初至7月中旬,开设“天窗”的处理周围土壤含水率变化在10.84%~20.42%,而没有开“天窗”的对照只有7.46%~15.96%。9月份,由于连续降雨的原因,各处理果园土壤含水率差异不显著。综合对比各处理发现,添加蛭石+炉渣在调节果园水分方面效果最好。(2)添加不同物料的处理6—9月份“天窗”内表层土壤CO2释放通量相比对照增加了7.1%~48.3%,而15 cm处相比对照显著降低了6.3%~40.4%;各处理“天窗”周围10 cm处6—9月份表层土壤CO2释放通量相比对照增加了0.2%~37.1%,15 cm处相比对照降低了6.2%~41.6%,30 cm处相比对照降低了0.6%~26.9%,可见开设“天窗”可以加快郁闭土壤内CO2气体的释放。另外,添加的物料不同,改良效果也不同,其中添加石灰和蛭石+石灰的处理在改善果园土壤气体交换方面效果较好。
英文摘要:
      Long-term planting has caused soil compaction on Weibei plateau. In order to improve soil water infiltration and air exchange,drilling and backfilled materials (“skylight”) was used to break the compact layer in the soil of orchard. At the germination stage of fruit trees,three apple orchards (>20 a)with serious soil degradation were selected as the research objects. Five materials including vermiculite (Z), slag (L), lime (S), vermiculite plus slag (ZL) and vermiculite plus lime (ZS) were,respectively, filled in holes of 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm deep near the apple trees with similar growth vigor. From June to September, soil water content and CO2 release flux were determined three times for each treatment. The results showed that soil water content ranged from 10.84%~20.42% in the“skylight”treatments, but in the control treatment soil water content ranged from 7.46%~15.96% from early June to mid-July. In September, there was no significant difference in soil moisture content among different treatments due to continuous rainfall. Comprehensively, the treatment of vermiculite plus slag had the best effect in improving soil moisture content. From June to September, the CO2 release flux of the surface soil in the “skylight” increased by 7.1%~48.3%,but it decreased by 6.3%~40.4% at the depth of 15 cm compared with the control. Simultaneously, the CO2 release flux of surface soil around the “skylight” increased by 0.2%~37.1%, but decreased by 6.2%~41.6% and 0.6%~26.9%, respectively, at 15 and 30 cm compared with the control. It indicated that 1~30 cm holes filled with different materials could promote the release of CO2 gas in the closed soil. Furthermore, the effects differed from different filling materials, in which lime-vermiculite plus lime had the best effect on enhancing gas exchange. Conclusively, drilling and backfilling materials had good effects on improving permeability and ventilation of compact soil, and the effect varied with the different materials used.
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