蔡艳,吕光辉,何学敏,蒋腊梅,王恒方,滕德雄.不同利用方式下草地生态系统的多功能性与物种多样性[J].干旱地区农业研究,2019,37(5):200~210
不同利用方式下草地生态系统的多功能性与物种多样性
Study on the multifunctionality and species diversity of grassland ecosystem under different land-uses
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2019.05.30
中文关键词:  草地生态系统  生态系统多功能性  物种多样性  量化方法
英文关键词:grassland ecosystem  ecosystem multifunctionality  species diversity  quantization method
基金项目:国家科学基金地区基金(31560131)
作者单位
蔡艳 College of Resources and Environment Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
吕光辉 Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
何学敏 Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
蒋腊梅 Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
王恒方 Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
滕德雄 Institute of Arid Ecology and Environment, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Key Laboratory of Oasis and Ecology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi,Xinjiang 830046, China 
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中文摘要:
      运用平均值法计算多功能性指数,对阿勒泰禁牧草地、春秋季节放牧草地、弃耕放牧草地、天然放牧草地进行了多功能性评价,并探讨了多功能性与物种多样性之间的关系。结果表明:所运用的方法和目前主流方法评价得出的多功能性指数在样方(R2=0.950, P<0.05)和样地尺度(R2=0.909, P<0.01)上都有极高的相关性。弃耕放牧草地物种多样性水平最低(0.219),绝大多数土壤功能指标较差,总体表现出退化特征(-0.241),天然放牧草地土壤功能指标也表现出同样的特征(-0.406);春秋季节放牧草地有较高的物种多样性水平(0.910)和较好的土壤功能指标(0.343);4种草地群落的多功能性指数为春秋季节放牧草地(0.343)>禁牧草地(0.222)>弃耕放牧草地(-0.241)>天然放牧草地(-0.406)。植物主要沿水肥梯度分布;多样性指数中,丰富度指数和均匀度指数对多功能性的影响最大,均为样地尺度(R2=0.980, P<0.05;R2=0.455, P>0.05)大于样方尺度(R2=0.078, P>0.05;R2=0.116, P>0.05),有尺度依赖性,但均匀度指数表现的并不明显。(4)物种丰富度对多功能性的影响最大(R2=0.980, P=0.01),表现为极显著正相关关系,而物种均匀度与之呈不显著的单峰曲线关系(P>0.05)。综上,相对于禁牧草地、天然放牧草地和弃耕放牧草地,春秋季节放牧草地更有利于维持该地区生态系统的多功能性;物种丰富度高且物种均匀度分布适中的生态系统可能有更高的多功能性。
英文摘要:
      We assessed the multifunctionality of grassland under non-grazing grassland, seasonal grazing grassland, farming abandoned grazing grassland, and natural grazing grassland in Altay using the multifunctionality index calculated by the mean value method, and discussed the relationship between the ecosystem multifunctionality and species diversity.The results showed that, the multifunctionality index resulted with the mean value method was highly correlated with that calculated by the current mainstream methods both in quadrat (R2=0.950, P<0.05) and plot scale (R2=0.909, P<0.01). Conversion of farmland to grazing grassland had the lowest species diversity (0.219), and most of the soil functional indices were poor showing a degradation characteristics (-0.241), which was also presented in natural grazing grassland (-0.406); the spring/autumn seasonal grazing grassland had a higher species diversity (0.910) and better soil functional performance (0.343). The multifunctionality index of four grassland communities was in order of spring/autumn seasonal grazing grassland(0.343) >non-grazing grassland(0.222) >grazing grassland converted from farmland > (-0.241) > natural grazing grassland (-0.406). Plants were distributed along the water and nutrient gradient. Among the biodiversity indices,Margelf index and Pielou index were most strongly correlated with the multifunctionality,their explanatory power for multifunctionality index was higher at quadrat scale (R2=0.980, P<0.05;R2=0.455, P>0.05) than at plot scale (R2=0.078, P>0.05;R2=0.116, P>0.05), but the effects of Pielou index was much smaller indicating study scale played an important role in multifunctionality. The multifunctionality was most influenced by the species abundance (R2=0.980, P=0.01), and significantly linearly correlated, whereas it was not significantly correlated with the species evenness representing an unimodal curve (P>0.05). In summary, compared with the other land-use types, the spring/autumn seasonal grazing grassland was more conducive to maintain the ecosystem multifunctionality in this region; ecosystems with high species abundance,and moderate evenness may have higher multifunctionality.
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