吕楠,张聪,李红兵,张岁岐.不同栽培模式下旱作春玉米产量及土壤水氮动态变化[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):22~30
不同栽培模式下旱作春玉米产量及土壤水氮动态变化
Dynamic changes in soil water and nitrogen and yield of rainfed spring maize under different cultivation systems
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.03
中文关键词:  高产高效栽培;土壤含水量;硝态氮;铵态氮;春玉米  产量
英文关键词:high yield and high efficiency cultivation  soil water content  nitrate nitrogen  ammonium nitrogen  spring maize yield
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划“黄土高原旱区增粮增效潜力与提升技术研究”(2015BAD22BO1)
作者单位
吕楠 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess PlateauNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China
College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张聪 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess PlateauNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China
College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
李红兵 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess PlateauNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张岁岐 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess PlateauNorthwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨黄土塬区玉米高产高效栽培模式及其环境效应,通过为期2 a的田间定位实验,研究了黄土塬区旱作春玉米不同栽培模式土壤水分时空变化特征、产量与水分利用效率以及硝态氮、铵态氮累积及其剖面分布的变化。试验设传统栽培模式(T1)、化肥有机肥高密度超高产模式(T2)、化肥有机肥中密度高产高效模式(T3)共3个处理,以郑单958为供试品种,测定了春玉米关键生育期土壤含水量,并于收获后测定实际产量和0~100 cm 土层硝态氮、铵态氮含量。结果表明:土壤含水量变化受降雨影响较大,2017年生育期降雨量为374.2 mm,是干旱年,玉米不仅能有效吸收中上层(0~120 cm)土壤水分,又不造成下层(120~200 cm)土壤水分的亏缺;2018年生育期降雨量为490.8 mm,是丰水年, 各生育期0~60 cm土层土壤含水量变化大,60~200 cm土层土壤含水量基本维持稳定。T2模式在60~80、80~100 cm土层硝态氮积累量高,淋溶现象明显,铵态氮含量无明显变化;2017年在60~80、80~100 cm土层T2模式硝态氮累积量分别比T3高8.2%、76.4%,2018年在60~80、80~100 cm土层T2模式硝态氮累积量分别比T3高50.3%、129.3%,施肥过多,随降雨入渗硝态氮淋溶到土壤深层。硝态氮积累量与春玉米产量显著相关,硝态氮是决定玉米产量的重要因素。2017年栽培模式T2和T3 产量分别比T1高55.4%、64.4%,WUE分别高46.9%、55.9%,2018年栽培模式T2和T3 产量分别比T1高49.7%、31.2%,WUE分别高58.9%、40.4%,均达到显著水平。化肥有机肥中密度高产高效模式(T3)既能保证高产、高WUE又能保证较少的硝态氮淋溶,减少环境污染,是该地区值得推广的旱作春玉米栽培模式。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the high\|yield and high\|efficiency cultivations of maize and its environmental effects on the Loess Plateau, we studied the characteristics of spatial\|temporal dynamics in soil moisture, yield and water use efficiency, accumulation and profile distribution of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in different cultivation systems of spring maize on Loess Plateau through a two\|year field positioning experiment. Three treatments including farmers’ practice (T1), high\|density and super\|high\|yield with chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer (T2), medium\|density, high\|yield and high\|efficiency mode with chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer (T3) were carried out with Zhengdan 958 as cultivar. We determined soil water content during the critical growth period. The actual yield, nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content in 0~100 cm soil layer were measured after harvest. The results showed that the changes in soil water content was greatly affected by rainfall. The rainfall in 2017 was 374.2 mm, which was a dry year. In this situation, maize could not only efficiently use water in 0~120 cm soil layers, but also don’t cause soil water deficit in lower level (120~200 cm). The rainfall in 2018 was 490.8 mm, which was a wet year, the soil water content in 0~60 cm layer changed greatly in each growth period, and the soil water content in 60~200 cm layer remained stable. Compared to T1 and T3, the nitrate accumulation under T2 treatment in 60~80 and 80~100 cm soil layer was higher and leaching was obvious. In 2017, the accumulation of nitrate under T2 treatment was 8.2 and 76.4% higher than that in in 60~80 cm and 80~100 cm soil layers under T3 treatment, respectively. In 2018, the accumulation of nitrate in 60~80 cm and 80~100 cm soil layers with T2 treatment was 50.3% and 129.3% higher than that with T3, respectively. Excessive fertilization leads to leaching of nitrate nitrogen into deep soil due to rainfall infiltration. Nitrate accumulation was significantly correlated with spring maize yield and nitrate was an important determining factor for maize yield. In 2017, the yield of T2 and T3 was 55.4%, and 64.4%, and WUE was 46.9% and 55.9% higher than that of T1, respectively. In 2018, the yield of T2 and T3 was 49.7% and 31.2% and WUE was 58.9% and 40.4% higher than that of T1, respectively. In conclusion, T3 treatment not only ensured high yield and high water use efficiency, but also reduced nitrate nitrogen leaching, mitigated environmental pollution, which could be helpful for increasing grain yield and WUE of dryland maize in semi\|arid regions.
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