袁久东,付蓉,胥婷婷,宋佳,徐倩,张洋,张荣,田汇,高亚军.青海省低海拔地区春油菜施肥现状与减肥空间[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):43~49
青海省低海拔地区春油菜施肥现状与减肥空间
Fertilization status and fertilizers reducing potential of spring rapeseed in low\|altitude areas of Qinghai Province
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.06
中文关键词:  春油菜;施肥现状  减肥空间;青海省低海拔地区
英文关键词:spring rapeseed  fertilization status  potential of fertilizer rate reducing  low altitude area of Qinghai Province
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200907);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503124);农业科研杰出人才及其创新团队培养计划项目
作者单位
袁久东 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
付蓉 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
胥婷婷 Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinhai 810016, China 
宋佳 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
徐倩 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张洋 Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinhai 810016, China 
张荣 Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinhai 810016, China 
田汇 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
高亚军 College of Natural Resource and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agri\|environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为明确青海省春油菜的施肥现状和减肥潜力,在该省低海拔春油菜典型种植区(海拔2 600 m以下)选取了451户农民进行实地调研。结果表明:调研区有47.7%的农户种植的春油菜产量都超过2005—2017年青海平均产量(1 674~2 158 kg·hm-2),有44.6%的农户低于平均产量;20.4%的农户氮肥投入适中(120~160 kg·hm-2),35.9%的农户偏高和很高,43.7%的农户偏低和很低;17.5%的农户磷肥投入适中(90~120 kg·hm-2),69.0%的农户偏高和很高,13.5%的农户偏低和很低;钾肥、微量元素肥料投入基本为空白;20.8%的农户施用有机肥,但有机肥用量低,极少有农户种植翻压绿肥。总之,青海春油菜氮肥投入过量与不足现象并存,且都比较严重;磷肥施用量普遍偏高;其它化肥与有机肥等施用很少。1/3春油菜田有氮肥减量空间,2/3春油菜田有磷肥减量空间,至少有20%的春油菜田氮磷化肥可同时减量。同时,施氮量偏低的春油菜田应该加强培肥,有效硼等微量元素含量偏低的油菜田应适时施用微肥,保证春油菜的高产高效生产。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify the production, fertilization status and fertilizer rate reducing potential of spring rapeseed in Qinghai Province, 451 farmer households were selected for door\|to\|door survey. Results showed that 47.7% of the households had more rapeseed yield than the average of 2005-2017 (1 674~2 158 kg·hm-2) while 44.6% of them had less yield than the average. About 20.4% of the households applied optimum dose of nitrogen fertilizer, 35.9% of them applied more than 160 kg·hm-2 N, while 43.7% of themused less than 120 kg·hm-2 N. About 17.5% of the farmer households applied moderate dose of phosphate fertilizer, 69.0% of themused more than 120 kg·hm-2 P, while 13.5% of them applied less than 90 kg·hm-2 P fertilizer. No potassium and micro\|nutrients fertilizers were applied in this area. 20.8% of the households applied organic fertilizer which was found to be at low dose. Few farmer households cultivated green manure. In short, both of excessive application and insufficient application of N fertilizer for spring rapeseed were found in the low\|altitude areas of Qinghai Province. Over dose of phosphate fertilizer was used by most farmer households. Other synthetic fertilizers and organic fertilizers were rarely applied. It can be seen that one\|third of the households could reduce N fertilizer rateand two\|thirds of the households could reduce P fertilizer rate for spring rapeseed. At least 20% of the households could decrease both of N and P fertilizer rate for spring rapeseed. In the meantime, soil fertility improvement of fields with low N fertilizer rate application for spring rapeseed should be concerned. Farmer household with low soil trace elements content are reminded to apply trace elements fertilizer.
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