张迎春,颉建明,郁继华,唐超男,王成.生物有机肥部分替代化肥对莴笋生长、产量及品质的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):66~73
生物有机肥部分替代化肥对莴笋生长、产量及品质的影响
Effects of partial substitution of chemical fertilizer by bio\|organic fertilizer on the growth, yield and quality of asparagus lettuce
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.09
中文关键词:  莴笋  化肥减施  生物有机肥  生长  品质  产量  肥料贡献率
英文关键词:asparagus lettuce  reduce fertilizer application  bio\|organic fertilizer  growth  quality  yield  fertilizer contribution rate
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0201005);甘肃省引导科技创新发展专项资金项目(2018ZX-02);甘肃省科技重大专项计划(17ZD2NA015);甘肃省瓜菜产业技术体系专项资金(GARS-GC-1)
作者单位
张迎春 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
颉建明 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
郁继华 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
唐超男 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
王成 College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了改善因化肥过量施用导致的蔬菜品质下降、肥料利用率降低和环境污染等问题, 通过化肥减量配施生物有机肥, 探讨菜田减肥潜力和生物有机肥增效作用。采用随机区组试验, 研究不同施肥处理对莴笋产量、品质、光合特性及肥料贡献率的影响。试验共设置6个施肥处理:不施肥(CK1)、100%常规施肥(CK2)、80%常规施肥+200 kg·667m-2生物有机肥(T1)、80%常规施肥+400 kg·667m-2生物有机肥(T2)、70%常规施肥+400 kg·667m-2生物有机肥(T3)、70%常规施肥+200 kg·667m-2生物有机肥(T4)。结果表明:生物有机肥部分替代化肥可使莴笋的株高、茎长及茎粗不同程度的增加, 其中T2效果最优;在相同的生物有机肥施用量下, 化肥减施20%较减施30%有助于根系的生长和根系活力的增强;T2处理莴笋叶绿素总量分别比CK1处理和CK2处理提高17.32%和1.74%;T2处理的净光合速率和蒸腾速率最高, 分别高于其他处理6.90%~49.35%和6.26%~58.64%;与CK2相比, T1、T2、T3和T4分别增产4.76%、15.31%、11.06%和4.11%, 其中T2产量最高, 达8 277.00 kg·667m-2, 其经济效益比CK2增长11.64%;化肥减施并配施生物有机肥的处理肥料贡献率均显著高于CK2处理, 100%常规施肥供大于求, 供需平衡破坏, 导致肥料的浪费;随着化肥用量的减少, 莴笋硝酸盐含量降低, T3处理降低幅度最大, 茎、叶中硝酸盐含量较CK2分别降低26.53%和20.96%;配施生物有机肥可提高莴笋茎、叶中可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖和维生素C的含量, 其中配施400 kg·667m-2时效果更优。化肥减施20%的条件下配施400 kg·667m-2生物有机肥可增强莴笋叶片光合能力, 提高产量和改善可食用部分品质, 是实现肥料资源合理配置的良好施肥模式。
英文摘要:
      In order to improve the situations of the excessive application of chemical fertilizers resulting inreduced vegetable quality, low fertilizer utilization rate, environmental pollution, and so on, a field experiment was carried out using combined application of bio\|fertilizer with chemical fertilizer to explore the potential of it in vegetable fields and the effect of bio\|organic fertilizer, and provide a scientific basis for reasonable fertilization.In this study, asparagus lettuce field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects on yield, quality, photosynthesis, and fertilizer contribution rate under different combinations. Six treatments were as follows: non\|fertilization (CK1), 100% chemical fertilizer (CK2), 80% chemical fertilizer with 200 kg·667m-2 bio\|organic fertilizer (T1), 80% chemical fertilizer with 400 kg·667m-2 bio\|organic fertilizer (T2), 70% chemical fertilizer with 400 kg·667m-2 bio\|organic fertilizer (T3), 70% chemical fertilizer with 200 kg·667m-2 bio\|organic fertilizer (T4). The results revealed that the combined application of bio\|fertilizer with chemical fertilizer treatments increased in different degrees the plant height, stem height, and stem diameter of asparagus lettuce in comparison with CK2, and T2 was the most significant. Compared with 30% reduction of chemical fertilizer (T3 and T4) treatments, the 20% reduction of chemical fertilizer (T1 and T2) treatments significant increases root growth and root vitality under the same conditions. The content of photosynthetic pigments with T2 treatment increased by 17.32 and 1.74% compared to CK1 and CK2, respectively. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate in asparagus lettuce treated with T2 treatment were the highest, with increased degree ranging from 6.90%~9.35% and 6.26%~58.64%, respectively. Compared with CK2, the yield of T1, T2, T3, and T4 increased by 4.76%, 15.31%, 11.06%, and 4.11%, respectively. And the yield of T2 was the highest at 8 277.00 kg·667m-2, and its economic benefit was 11.64% higher than that of CK2. The supply of 100% chemical fertilizer exceeded the crop demand, and the balance of supply and demand was broken, which leaded to waste of fertilizer. The contribution rate of fertilizer was significantly improved by combined application of bio\|fertilizer with chemical fertilizer. The content of nitrate in stem and leaf decreased with decrease in chemical fertilizer usage. Additionally, the contents of soluble protein, soluble sugar, and vitamin C increased with applying biological organic fertilizer. Therefore, the 80% of conventional chemical fertilizer with 400 kg·667m-2 bio\|organic fertilizer progress of photosynthetic capacity, improved yield and quality in asparagus lettuce, which was a good fertilization mode to realize the rational allocation of fertilizer resources.
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