刘慧敏,张圣也,郭怀刚,林俊俊,李佐同,闫凤超,朱广石,徐晶宇,赵长江.生物炭对谷子幼苗生长及光合特性的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):86~91
生物炭对谷子幼苗生长及光合特性的影响
Effects of biochar supplement in soil on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of millet seedlings
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.12
中文关键词:  谷子  生物炭  幼苗生长  根系形态  光合特性
英文关键词:millet  biochar  seedling growth  root morphology  photosynthetic characteristics
基金项目:中央引导地方科技发展专项(ZY16A06);黑龙江农垦总局科技项目(NKKY190210-01);黑龙江农垦总局科技攻关项目(HNK135-02-05);黑龙江省应用技术研究与开发计划项目(GZ13B018);黑龙江省优势特色学科建设项目(2017)
作者单位
刘慧敏 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
张圣也 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
郭怀刚 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
林俊俊 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
李佐同 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
闫凤超 Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation Academy of Sciences, Herbin,Heilongjiang 150000, China 
朱广石 Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation Academy of Sciences, Herbin,Heilongjiang 150000, China 
徐晶宇 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
赵长江 College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Heilongjiang Engineering Technology Research Center for Crop Straw Utilization/Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Cultivation Technology and Crop Germplasm Improvement of Heilongjiang Province,Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, China 
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中文摘要:
      为揭示生物炭在谷子种植中的应用潜力和价值,以祥谷3号为材料,采用室内盆栽试验的方式,在土壤中添加3种不同比例的生物炭(10、50、90 g·kg-1),于播种后30 d对谷子幼苗进行生物量、根系形态和地上形态及叶片光合的测定分析。结果表明:与未施用生物炭(BC0)对照相比,不同剂量的生物炭均显著改善了谷子幼苗地上和地下生物量、形态指标以及除胞间CO2浓度以外的其他光合参数指标,且以中等剂量生物炭(50 g·kg-1)对谷子生长和光合指标的影响效果最为明显。与对照相比,中等剂量生物炭(50 g·kg-1)处理谷子幼苗地上部分和地下部分鲜重、干重分别提高了220%、181%和500%、350%,根冠比增加41.7%;谷子幼苗地下部分主根长、总根长、总根表面积、根尖数、分枝数分别提高124%、215%、323%、86.4%、279%;谷子地上部分幼苗株高、茎粗和叶面积分别提高48.28%、50%、159%;叶片相对叶绿素含量和净光合速率分别提高21.01%和167%。研究表明,生物炭添加可以改善地下根系和地上茎叶形态,改善叶片光合和根系对水分和矿质元素的吸收能力,从而促进谷子生物量的积累,可为后期产量的形成奠定基础。
英文摘要:
      To reveal the potential application and value of biochar in millet cultivation, the Setaria italica variety, Xianggu 3, was planted in the soil pots with three biochar rates (10, 50, and 90 g·kg-1) were supplemented. The seedlings biomass, the morphology of underground roots,aboveground, and the photosynthetic characteristics of millet seedlings were analyzed after sowing 30 days. The results showed that compared with the untreated control (BC0), the different doses of biochar significantly promoted the aboveground and underground biomass and phenotype indicators of millet seedlings, as well as other photosynthetic parameters except the intercellular CO2 concentration. And the effect of 50 g·kg-1 biochar treatment on growth and photosythesis of millet was most obious. Compared with the control (0 g·kg-1), the fresh weight and the dry weight of both the aboveground and the underground were significantly promoted to 220% and 181%, 500% and 350%, respectively, and the root\|shoot ratio increased by 41.7%. The 5 phenotype indicators of the underground, including the root length, the total root length, the total root surface area, the root tip number, and the branch number increased by 124%, 215%, 323%, 86.4%, and 279%, respectively. While the 3 phenotype indexes of the aboveground, including the seedling height, the stem diameter, and the leaf area increased by 48.28%, 50%, and 159%, respectively. The photosynthetic indicators, for example, the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the net photosynthetic rate increased by 21.01% and 167%, respectively. These results suggested that the biochar addition in soil could promote the biomass of millet seedlings through improving the phenotype construction of the underground roots and the aboveground stems and leaves, and enhancing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves. This can lay a foundation for the formation of later crop yield.
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