王天,张舒涵,闫士朋,张俊莲,李朝周.干旱胁迫和磷肥用量对马铃薯根系形态及生理特征的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):117~124
干旱胁迫和磷肥用量对马铃薯根系形态及生理特征的影响
Effects of drought stress and application amount of phosphorus fertilizer on morphological and physiological characteristics of potato roots
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.16
中文关键词:  磷肥用量  干旱胁迫  马铃薯  根系生理  根系形态
英文关键词:phosphorus fertilizer application amount  potato  drought stress  root physiology  root development
基金项目:国家马铃薯产业技术体系(CARS-09-P14);甘肃省科技厅科技支撑项目(1604NKCA052-3)
作者单位
王天 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张舒涵 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
闫士朋 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
张俊莲 Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
李朝周 College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China
Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China 
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中文摘要:
      以马铃薯品种大西洋为材料,探究干旱胁迫条件下马铃薯根系生理及根系形态对磷肥不同增施量的响应,旨在确定干旱胁迫下提高马铃薯产量及抗旱性的最佳磷肥施用量。试验设2个干旱胁迫处理、1个充分灌溉处理,土壤含水量分别保持在9.5%、14.0%、32.0%左右;以及5个磷肥用量(以P2O5计),分别为:T1(27.3 kg·hm-2)、T2(54.5 kg·hm-2)、T3(81.8 kg·hm-2)、T4(109.1 kg·hm-2)、T5(136.3 kg·hm-2),另设不施肥处理为对照(T0)。结果显示:与充分灌溉相比干旱对马铃薯造成了一系列不利影响,以轻度干旱为例,轻度干旱导致马铃薯根系含水量较充分灌溉处理组降低了5.54%,超氧阴离子(O—[KG-1][JX*3]·[JX-*3]2)产生速率、丙二醛(MDA)含量分别升高了63.33%和180.47%,株高和匍匐茎数分别降低了11.74%、7.66%,马铃薯根重和块茎产量分别下降了9.85%和6.75%;比较5种磷肥增施量,以每公顷增施54.5 kg磷肥对马铃薯抗旱性及生长发育的促进效果最佳,其中,在轻旱条件下,马铃薯根系活力提高了36.28%,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性分别提高了29.31%、46.27%和114.53%,马铃薯块茎产量提高了39.75%,马铃薯总根长、根表面积、根体积分别增加了104.20%、31.65%和21.06%。综上所述,干旱胁迫显著抑制了马铃薯根系生长发育,而增施适量磷肥可通过提高抗氧化酶活性,增强根系活力及优化根系形态来缓解干旱胁迫下马铃薯根系脂质过氧化程度,减轻干旱对生长发育的抑制,增强植株整体抗旱性。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment was conducted using the potato cultivar “Atlantic” as experimental material to study the effects of different phosphorus (P) fertilizer application amounts on root physiology and development of potato seedlings under drought stress. The purpose was to determine the optimum P fertilizer application amount for increasing potato yield and drought resistance under drought stress, and to provide theoretical support for potato production under water deficit conditions. The experiment was carried out with two drought stress treatments and one full irrigation. The soil water content was maintained at 9.5%, 14.0%, and 32.0%, respectively. The amount of 6 P fertilizers application quantities (P2O5) were used as: T1 (27.3 kg·hm-2), T2 (54.5 kg·hm-2), T3 (81.8 kg·hm-2), T4 (109.1 kg·hm-2), T5 (136.3 kg·hm-2), and no P fertilizer application as control (T0). The results showed that: (1) Compared with full irrigation treatment group, light drought caused the potato root water content decrease by 5.54% and O—[KG-1][JX*3]·[JX-*3]2 production rate and malondialdehyde content increased by 63.33% and 180.47%, respectively. Plant height and stolon number decreased by 11.74% and 7.66%, respectively. Potato root weight and tuber yield decreased by 9.85% and 6.75% respectively. (2) The best P fertilizer application amount in promoting the growth and development of potato seedlings under drought stress was 54.5 kg·hm-2 among all 6 treatments of P fertilizer application amounts. In the P fertilizer application amount of 54.5 kg·hm-2 under mild drought condition, the root activity of potato increased by 36.28%; superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities increased by 29.31%, 46.27%, and 114.53% respectively and the weight of potato tuber increased by 39.75%. In terms of root morphology, total root length, root surface area, and root volume of potato increased by 104.20%, 31.65%, and 21.06%, respectively. So, it is concluded that the growth of potato seedlings was inhibited significantly by drought stress, but proper amount of P fertilizer application could alleviate the degree of root lipid\|peroxidation and the damage on cell membrane, thus, alleviated the inhibition on root growth and enhanced the drought resistance of the potato seedlings by increasing the anti\|oxidative enzymes activities, the root vigor, and optimizing of root morphology.
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