马波,黄勇,田军仓.幼龄期压砂地枸杞产量和品质多指标耦合灌溉制度优化[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):140~147
幼龄期压砂地枸杞产量和品质多指标耦合灌溉制度优化
Optimization of irrigation scheduling based on yield\|quality multi\|index coupling at juvenile stage of Lycium barbarum L. in gravel\|mulched field
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.19
中文关键词:  枸杞;幼龄期;压砂地;耗水量  灌水定额;灌溉制度优化;产量;品质
英文关键词:Lycium barbarum L.  juvenile stage  gravel\|mulched field  water consumption  optimization of irrigation scheduling  yield  quality
基金项目:宁夏自然科学基金项目(NZ13007);宁夏高等学校一流学科建设(水利工程学科)资助项目(NXYLXK2017A03);宁夏重点研发计划项目(2019BEH03010);国家自然科学基金(51569024)
作者单位
马波 College of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
2. Ningxia Research Center of Technology on Water\|saving Irrigation and Water Resource Regulation, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
Efficient Use of Water Resources in Arid Modern Agriculture Ministry of Educational Engineering Research Center, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
黄勇 College of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
田军仓 College of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
2. Ningxia Research Center of Technology on Water\|saving Irrigation and Water Resource Regulation, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
Efficient Use of Water Resources in Arid Modern Agriculture Ministry of Educational Engineering Research Center, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China 
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中文摘要:
      为提高宁夏中部干旱带幼龄期压砂地枸杞灌水效率,保障枸杞产量和品质,进行了3水平灌水定额(300、225 m3·hm-2和150 m3·hm-2)的田间对比试验,采用综合指标增量最优方法对灌溉制度进行了优化。研究发现:枸杞5月上旬萌芽期耗水以土壤蒸发为主,日耗水量0.6~1.2 mm,6月中旬进入夏果花期耗水量增大,日耗水量2.5~3.7 mm,7月中旬枸杞夏果期耗水量继续增大,达2.4~4.3 mm,7月下旬日耗水量最大,为3.2~4.7 mm,8月中旬耗水量下降,日耗水量3.0~4.2 mm。灌水定额对枸杞产量影响显著(P<0.05),灌水定额300 m3·hm-2时产量最高,为1 402.65 kg·hm-2;灌水定额225 m3·hm-2时枸杞多糖、β-胡萝卜素和黄酮较高,含量分别为4.56%、0.15%和0.41%;灌水定额150 m3·hm-2时枸杞甜菜碱含量较高,为0.77%。进一步通过综合指标增量最优方法进行优化,结果表明β-胡萝卜素含量最高时得到综合指标增量最大,为-5.4%,总耗水量为450 mm。枸杞夏果花期进入需水关键期,阶段耗水量达70 mm以上,进入6月中旬枸杞需水量增大,旬耗水量达29 mm以上。可见,幼龄期压砂地枸杞产量及品质指标均达到最优的耗水量较难获得,但是在β-胡萝卜素含量最高时可以获得产量和品质多指标耦合的最优耗水量,据此进行灌溉制度优化,可以一定程度上实现幼龄期压砂地枸杞优质高产。
英文摘要:
      In order to improve irrigation efficiency and guarantee the yield and quality of juvenile stage Lycium barbarum L. planted in gravel\|mulched field in the central arid region of Ningxia, Northwestern China, this study carried out an open field experiment with designed 3 levels of irrigating water quota including 300 m3·hm-2 as HIW, 225 m3·hm-2 as MIW, and 150 m3·hm-2 as LIW in 2017, and optimized irrigation scheduling based on ‘optimal aggregative indicator increment’ method. The results showed that the main water consumption was soil evaporation in the first\|ten days of May at the germination stage and daily water consumption was by 0.6~1.2 mm. The daily water consumption increased significantly in the middle ten days of June in the blossom stage due to temperature and leaf area index increases, the daily water consumption by 2.5~3.7 mm. The daily water consumption increased continuously in the second ten days of July for summer fruit stage, the range was 2.4~4.3 mm. The maximum daily water consumption occurred in the last ten days of July in the summer fruit middle stage by 3.2~4.7 mm. Daily water consumption reduced in middle ten days of August in the fall fruit blossom stage by 3.0~4.2 mm. The irrigating water quota had significant effection to yield (P<0.05).The maximum yield was 1 402.65 kg·hm-2 of irrigating water quota with 300 m3·hm-2. The percent of polysaccharide, β-carotene, and flavone of irrigating water quota with 225 m3·hm-2 were higher than other treatments, and by 4.56%, 0.15%, and 0.41%,respectively. The glycine betaine of irrigating water quota with 150 m3·hm-2 was the highest, and the percentage was 0.77%. The aggregative indicator increment was optimal with percent of -5.4% under β-carotene content maximum with 450mm water consumption in whole growth season. According to this result, we got optimal irrigation scheduling, from begin of full\|bloom stage, the lowest irrigation amount was 70 mm of whole stage, or lowest irrigation amount was 29 mm from middle ten days of June beginning.It was also showed that the key periods of water require of juvenile stage Lycium barbarum L planted in gravel\|mulched field were summer fruit blossom period and summer fruit stage. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain the optimal water consumption of both yield and quality indexes of juvenile stage Lycium barbarum L planted in gravel\|mulched field. However, the optimal water consumption of multiple indexes coupled with yield and quality can be obtained when the content of β-carotene is the highest, so optimization of irrigation system can achieve high quality and high yield of juvenile stage Lycium barbarum L.
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