章杰,胡田田,何琼,李鸿祥.灌水量及减氮模式对冬小麦产量及水氮利用的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):148~154
灌水量及减氮模式对冬小麦产量及水氮利用的影响
Effects of irrigation amount and nitrogen fertilizer\|reduction pattern on yield and utilization of water and nitrogen of winter wheat
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.20
中文关键词:  冬小麦  灌水量  缓/控释氮肥  水氮利用  土壤硝态氮残留  产量  关中平原
英文关键词:winter wheat  irrigation amount  slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer  water and nitrogen utilization  [JP] soil nitrate nitrogen residue  yield  Guanzhong Plain
基金项目:2015公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费(201503124)
作者单位
章杰 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
胡田田 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
何琼 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
李鸿祥 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University,Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      为探究关中平原冬小麦合理的减氮模式及相应的灌水量,以灌水量为主处理、减氮模式为副处理开展冬小麦田间裂区试验,灌水量设90 mm和150 mm,参照本地习惯施氮(尿素CO,施氮量210 kg·hm-2)设置减氮模式,施氮量为150 kg·hm-2,有3种施氮类型:尿素+硝化抑制剂(DMPP)、控释氮肥和尿素掺施(PCU)和控释复合肥(SF),另以不施氮肥(N0)为对照,对小麦产量、水分和氮肥利用效率及土壤硝态氮残留状况进行分析。结果表明: 灌水量和减氮模式两因素及其交互作用对冬小麦有效穗数、千粒重、籽粒产量、土壤硝态氮残留量及水分和氮肥利用效率均有显著影响; 灌水量对冬小麦产量的影响随减氮模式而变, 与灌水90 mm相比, PCU150和DMPP150处理在灌水量150 mm时产量降低,SF150和N0处理产量有所增大;灌水90 mm时,减氮模式PCU150和DMPP150较习惯施氮CO210减少施氮28.6%,籽粒产量和有效穗数显著增加,分别增产17.4%和11.6%, 水分利用效率提高17.5%和13.5%, 氮肥利用效率增加64.3%和58.4%, 0~200 cm土层硝态氮残留量减少57.8%和45.6%。关中平原在冬小麦全生育期灌水90 mm,采用尿素加硝化抑制剂基施、树脂包膜尿素基施60% +尿素拔节期追施40%两种减氮模式,冬小麦可维持较高产量和水肥利用效率。
英文摘要:
      n order to explore the reasonable nitrogen (N) fertilizer\|reduction and suitable irrigation amount on winter wheat in Guanzhong Plain, a winter wheat field split plot experiment was carried out using irrigation amount as the main treatment and nitrogen fertilizer\|reduction pattern as the sub\|treatment. The irrigation amount was set to 90 mm and 150 mm. According to the local customary application of N (urea CO, 210 kg·hm-2 N application rate), the N application rate of theN fertilizer\|reduction pattern was set at 150 kg·hm-2 N application rate,and there were three types of N application:ureaplusnitrification inhibitor (DMPP),controlled release N fertilizer and urea mixed application (PCU) and controlled loss of fertilizer (SF),and a control (N0) without N. The wheat yield, water and N use efficiency, and soil nitrate Nresidual status were analyzed.The results showed that the two\|factors of irrigation amount and N fertilizer\|reduction patternand their interaction had significant effects on available ear, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, soil NO-3-N residual amount, and water and nitrogen use efficiency.The effect of irrigation amount on winter wheat yield varied with N fertilizer\|reduction pattern. Compared with 90 mm, PCU150 and DMPP treatments reduced the yield when the irrigation volume was 150mm, and increased the yield of SF150 and N0 treatment. When the water was 90 mm, nitrogen fertilizer\|reduction patterns PCU150 and DMPP150 decreasedN amount by 28.6%compared with the conventional N fertilizer pattern CO210, andthe grain yield and available ear increased significantly, which increased yield by 17.4 and 11.6%, respectively; the water use efficiency increased by 17.5% and 13.5%; N use efficiency increased by 64.3% and 58.4%; 0~200 cm soil NO-3-N residual amount decreased by 57.8% and 45.6%, respectively.Winter wheat on Guanzhong Plain with 90mm irrigationduring the whole growth period and N fertilizer\|reduction patterns of urea plus nitrification inhibitors and 60% of resin coated urea as basefertilizer and 40% of urea at jointing stage maintained optimum yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency.
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