毕丽霏,张富仓,王海东,王英,吴悠,向友珍,范军亮.水肥调控对滴灌马铃薯生长、品质及水肥利用的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):155~165
水肥调控对滴灌马铃薯生长、品质及水肥利用的影响
Effects of regulated water and fertilizer on potato growth, quality, water and fertilizer use efficiency under drip irrigation
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.21
中文关键词:  马铃薯;滴灌  水肥调控;产量;块茎品质;水肥利用效率
英文关键词:potato  drip irrigation  water and fertilizer regulation  yield  tuber quality  water and fertilizer use efficiency
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51579211);陕西省农业领域重点产业创新链项目(2016KTZDNY-01-02)
作者单位
毕丽霏 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
张富仓 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
王海东 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
王英 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
吴悠 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
向友珍 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
范军亮 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China
Institute of Water\|saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China,Northwest A&F UniversityYangling, Shaanxi 712100, China 
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中文摘要:
      研究生育期土壤水分下限调控和施肥对陕北榆林地区滴灌马铃薯生长、品质和水肥利用的影响,以期探寻马铃薯优质高产的水肥调控模式。以马铃薯紫花白为材料,分别在苗期、块茎形成期、块茎膨大期、淀粉积累期、成熟期设置3个土壤水分调控下限水平:W1(55%、60%、65%、55%、55%)、W2(65%、70%、75%、65%、65%)、W3(75%、80%、85%、75%、75%),4个施肥水平N-P2O5-K2O (kg·hm-2)分别为F1(100-40-150 kg·hm-2)、F2(150-60-225 kg·hm-2)、F3(200-80-300 kg·hm-2)、F4(250-100-375 kg·hm-2),共12个处理,在生育期内对马铃薯生长、产量及品质等指标进行观测,分析马铃薯各指标对水肥的响应机制。结果表明:(1)在同一施肥水平下,W2灌水处理的马铃薯生长、产量、品质、水肥利用效率(WUE)均显著高于W1和W3处理。W2处理的平均产量为43 187.15 kg·hm-2,比W1和W3分别增加了24.59%和5.26%,淀粉和维生素C含量分别增加了15.32%和6.37%,8.04%和4.66%,WUE分别增加了15.53 %和7.54 %,肥料偏生产力(PFP)分别增加了21.65%和4.41%。(2)在同一灌水水平下,F3施肥处理的马铃薯生长、产量、WUE均显著高于F1、F2和F4处理,淀粉含量和维生素C含量在F2处理最高。F3处理的平均产量为44 691.32 kg·hm-2,比F1、F2和F4处理分别增加了41.79%、10.98%和6.34%。WUE随施肥量的增加均呈抛物线变化趋势,PFP 随施肥量增加呈减小趋势,F1处理的PFP平均为108.69 kg·kg-1,比F2、F3和F4处理分别显著增加了17.41%、41.06%和87.50%。(3)运用主成分分析法评价马铃薯品质表明,F3W2处理排名第一,是榆林地区马铃薯优质高产的最优水肥组合。
英文摘要:
      To better understand the effects of regulating water and fertilizer on growth, quality, water and fertilizer use of potato under drip irrigation in Yulin areas in Northern Shaanxi and in order to explore the water and fertilizer regulation mode of high quality and high yield of potato with the potato species of Zihuabai, there were total of 12 treatments combining three lower limits of soil moisture regulation including W1 (55%, 60%, 65%, 55%, and 55%), W2 (65%, 70%,75%, 65%, and 65%), W3 (75%, 80%, 85%, 75%, and 75%) and four N-P2O5-K2O (kg·hm-2) fertilization rates of F1 (100-40-150 kg·hm-2), F2 (150-60-225 kg·hm-2), F3(200-80-300 kg·hm-2), F4 (250-100-375 kg·hm-2) at different growing stages (seedling stage, tuber formation stage, tuber swelling stage, starch accumulation stage, and maturity stage). Growth, yield and quality indices were measured during the growing season exploring the responses mechanism of each index of potato to irrigation and fertilizer. The results showed that: (1) At the same fertilizer rate, the growth, yield, quality, and water and fertilizer use efficiency of potato of W2 were significantly higher than that of W1 and W3. The yield of W2 was 43 187.15 kg·hm-2, 24.59% and 5.26% higher than W1 and W3, respectively. The starch content and vitamin C content of W2 was increased by 15.32% and 8.04%, 6.37% and 4.66%, respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE) of W2 increased by 15.53% and 7.54%. The partial fertilizer productivity (PFP) of W2 increased by 21.65% and 4.41%. (2)At the same irrigation level, the growth, yield, and WUE of potato with F3 were higher than those of F1, F2, and F4. The starch content and vitamin C content of F2 were the highest. The average yield of F3 was 44 691.32 kg·hm-2, which was 41.79%, 10.98%, and 6.34% higher than F1, F2, and F4, respectively. The WUE showed a parabolic trend with the increase of fertilization amount. The PFP gradually decreased with the increase in fertilizer application. The PFP of F1 was 108.69 kg·kg-1, which was 17.41%, 41.06%, and 87.50% higher than F2, F3, and F4, respectively. (3)The evaluation of potato quality by principal component analysis showed that F3W2 treatment ranked first. Comprehensively considering growth, quality, yield, and water and fertilizer use efficiency, F3W2 treatment was the best water and fertilizer combination for high quality and yield of potato in Yulin area.
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