杜建民,王占军,俞鸿千,季波.苜蓿草田地下滴灌适宜冬灌量[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):166~172
苜蓿草田地下滴灌适宜冬灌量
Optimum winter irrigation amount of subsurface drip irrigation in alfalfa grassland
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.22
中文关键词:  苜蓿  地下滴灌  冬灌量  土壤贮水量  土壤耗水量  冻融交替
英文关键词:alfalfa  subsurface drip irrigation  winter irrigation amount  soil water storage  soil water consumption  freezing\|thawing alternation
基金项目:宁夏农林科学院自主研发项目(NKYJ-17-20);宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划(2017BY082);宁夏回族自治区自然基金项目(NZ16117);国家牧草产业技术体系盐池综合试验站(CARS-34)
作者单位
杜建民 Institute of Desertification Control, Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
王占军 Institute of Desertification Control, Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
俞鸿千 Institute of Desertification Control, Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
季波 Institute of Desertification Control, Ningxia Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750002, China 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究不同冬灌量对苜蓿越冬和返青期土壤水热状况、返青期苜蓿生长及第一茬饲草产量的影响,采用随机区组设计,设置4个冬灌量水分梯度(T1为600 m3·hm-2、T2为900 m3·hm-2、T3为1 200 m3·hm-2,以1 500 m3·hm-2为CK),开展地下滴灌不同冬灌量单因素试验。结果表明:苜蓿草田不同冬灌量对土壤水热状况影响差异明显,各处理冻融期历时为CK=T3<T2<T1,分别达6、6、12 d和18 d,冻结期历时为CK<T3<T2<T1,分别达51、61、63 d和67 d,随灌水量的增加冻融期和冻结期历时变短且延迟;消融期随冬灌量增加历时延长且逐步提前,各处理消融期历时为CK>T3=T2>T1,相差在1~4 d之间,以CK的3月5日结束期为最早。在苜蓿越冬期内,各处理0~100 cm土层土壤贮水消耗量随冬灌量的增加而增加,T1耗水量为53.70 m3·hm-2,T2为102.95 m3·hm-2,T3为301.5/hm2,CK为469.16 m3·hm-2,且以40~60 cm土层耗水量最高;60~100 cm土层土壤贮水变化表现不一致,T1和T2贮水量增加且增幅随冬灌量增加而下降,T3和CK贮水量下降,且随冬灌量增加降幅增大。在苜蓿返青期始末,各处理0~100 cm土层土壤贮水均呈消耗状态,以冬灌量900 m3·hm-2的T2土壤贮水消耗量为最高值,达212.87 m3·hm-2。越冬率、第一茬草产量均与冬灌量呈正相关关系,一级分枝数各处理间差异不显著;以苜蓿越冬率、一级分枝数、第一茬草产量、越冬期和返青期耗水量为指标,采用隶属函数法对各处理进行综合评价,各处理隶属函数平均值大小为:T2>T3>T1>CK,认为宁夏灌区苜蓿草田地下滴灌最优冬灌灌水量为T2处理(900 m3·hm-2),有利于提高冬灌灌溉水利用效率和改善苜蓿越冬、返青状况。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the effects of different winter irrigation amounts on soil water content and temperature of over\|winter and spring green\|upstage,growth and hay yield of first stubble alfalfa (medicago sativa) were analyzed. Different winter irrigation single factor tests were carried out by a randomized block design including four water treatments (600 m3·hm-2as T1,900 m3·hm-2as T2,1 200 m3·hm-2 as T3, 1 500 m3·hm-2 as T4) of winter irrigation amounts were set up. The results showed that the effects of different winter irrigation amounts on soil water content and temperature were obvious and the duration of freezing\|thawing ranked as CK=T3<T2<T1,respectively, up to 6 d,6 d,12 d, and 18 d; freezing period was as CK<T3<T2<T1, respectively, up to 51 d,61 d,63 d, and 67 d. With the increase in winter irrigation amount, the duration of freezing\|thawing and freezing period became shorter and delayed, the melting period was prolonged and gradually advanced 1 to 4 days; the duration of each treatment was as CK>T3=T2>T1, and the end of March 5 was the earliest. During the overwinter period, the soil water storage gradually decreased with the increase of winter irrigation amount in 0~100 cm layer, and the soil water consumption of T1, T2, T3 and CK were 53.70,102.95,301.5, and 469.16 m3·hm-2, respectively. The 40~60 cm layer was the highest, the change of soil water storage was different in 60~100 cm layer, T1 and T2 water storage increased and it was inversely proportional to winter irrigation, T3 and CK water storage decreased with the increase of winter irrigation. During the period of green\|up stage, the soil water storage was consumed in 0~100 cm layer, and the highest value 212.87 m3·hm-2 storage was with 900 m3·hm-2 of T2. Overwinter rate and first stubble hay yield of alfalfa were positively correlated with winter irrigation, butthere was no significant difference in the number of primary branches among treatments. Taking the overwintering rate, the number of primary branches, the yield of the first stubble, the water consumption during the overwintering, and greening stages of medicago sativa as the indexes,the subordinate function method was used to comprehensively evaluate each treatment. It indicated that the average value of subordinate function of each treatment was in the order of T2>T3>T1>CK. It was concluded that the optimal winter irrigation amount was 900 m3·hm-2 of T2 for subsurface drip irrigation for alfalfa field in Ningxia area, which was conducive to the water use efficiency of winter irrigation and the overwintering and green\|up stage of alfalfa.
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