曹雪松,李和平,郑和祥,冯亚阳,陈志忠,赵清虎.加气灌溉对根区土壤肥力质量与作物生长的影响[J].干旱地区农业研究,2020,38(1):183~189
加气灌溉对根区土壤肥力质量与作物生长的影响
Effect of aerated irrigation on crop growth and soil fertility quality in root zone
  
DOI:10.7606/j.issn.1000-7601.2020.01.24
中文关键词:  加气灌溉  低氧胁迫  根区土壤肥力  作物生长
英文关键词:aerated irrigation  hypoxic stress  soil fertility in root zone  crop growth
基金项目:中国水利水电科学研究院科研专项项目(MK2018J05);国家青年科学基金项目(41901052,51609153);国家“十三五”重点研发计划项目(2017YFC040320504);内蒙古自治区自然基金(2019MS05001)
作者单位
曹雪松 Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area of China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010020, China 
李和平 Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area of China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010020, China 
郑和祥 Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area of China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010020, China 
冯亚阳 Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia 010018, China 
陈志忠 Yongji Administration Bureau Experimend Station, Linhe, inner Mongolia 015000 
赵清虎 HeBi Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau,HeBi, Henan 458000, China 
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中文摘要:
      水、肥、气、热、光是保障作物生长发育的五大要素,传统的灌溉方式不但用水量大,还会导致土壤通气性不足、团粒结构破坏,五要素之间的平衡被打破,造成土壤板结、盐碱化等土壤退化现象,从而土壤肥力质量下降,对作物生长发育造成不利影响。综述了加气灌溉研究背景、加气灌溉条件下土壤肥力质量评价指标、加气灌溉对土壤和土壤肥力质量的影响、加气灌溉对作物生长的影响,总结了加气灌溉对土壤微环境、酶环境、营养环境和作物根系的影响规律以及加气灌溉对土壤微环境和作物根系的调节机理。大量研究表明,加气灌溉能够有效改善根区土壤结构和水力学特性,增强作物根区土壤通透性,明显增加作物根区土壤中细菌、真菌和放线菌的数量,提高土壤中过氧化氢酶与脲酶活性,改善作物根区土壤微环境;加气灌溉可以增加土壤中速效氮和速效磷的含量,提高土壤肥力质量,促进根系对营养物质的吸收和作物的生长发育,提高灌溉水利用效率,作物增产高达10%以上。最后总结了现阶段加气灌溉还存在加气设备研发、加气时间与频次问题以及加气灌溉对土壤、微生物、作物根系、生态环境等的影响机制问题,提出了目前加气灌溉处于定量研究的探索阶段,还需要对加气灌溉中水-土-气-作物的耦合机制进一步开展研究。
英文摘要:
      Water, fertilizer, gas, heat and light are the five key factors to ensure the growth and development of crops. The traditional irrigation method not only consumes a lot of water, but also leads to insufficient soil aeration, destruction of the aggregate structure, and the balance between the five elements is broken. Soil degradation, such as soil compaction and salinization, causes soil fertility to decline, which adversely affects crop growth and development. This paper reviews the research background of aerated irrigation, the evaluation index of soil fertility quality under aerated irrigation conditions, the effect of aerated irrigation on soil and soil fertility quality, the effect of aerated irrigation on crop growth, and summarizes the effects of aerated irrigation on soil microenvironment, enzyme environment, nutrition environment and crop root system, and the regulation mechanism of aerated irrigation on soil microenvironment and crop root system. Numerous studies have shown that aerated irrigation can effectively improve the soil structure and hydraulic characteristics of the root zone, enhance the soil permeability of the crop root zone, significantly increase the number of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the root zone of the crop, and increase the hydrogen peroxide in the soil. Enzyme and urease activities improve soil micro\|environment in crop root zone, and aerated irrigation can increase the content of available nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil, improve soil fertility quality, promote nutrient absorption and crop growth and development of roots, and improve irrigation water utilization efficiency, crop yield increased by more than 10%. Finally, it is concluded that there are still problems in the research and development of gas filling equipment, the time and frequency of gas filling, and the influence mechanism of aerated irrigation on soil, microorganisms, crop roots, ecological environment, etc. In the exploration stage of quantitative research, it is necessary to further study the coupling mechanism of water\|soil\|gas\|crop in aerated irrigation, in order to provide theoretical basis for future research.
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